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The Platform DAM – Digital African Memory in Portugal aims to research the history and influence of African presence in Portugal. By mapping and compiling disperse and concealed information on a set of public and private archives, DAM looks to historically accompany this absent presence, underlining its scientific, artistic, political, and socio-cultural contributions until today. And, as such, contributing to: i) memorialize historical processes, moments and places relevant for the history of African and black presence in Portugal; ii) encourage future research in various knowledge fields; iii) inform and amplify the scope of the tours held by Batoto Yetu Portugal in the spaces of memory of African and black presence in the country.




The arrival of African populations is a constant in Portuguese history. One of the primary factors is the proximity of the Iberian Peninsula to the north of the African continent through the Strait of Gibraltar – one of the first routes used by modern humans in migrating from Africa to Eurasia, that is estimated to have happened from the final stage of the Upper Paleolithic, about 45.000 years ago.[i] In Portugal, testimonies of the Paleolithic can be found today in the Côa Valley, with a set of rock engravings painted by then-black, blue-eyed populations. To be sure, recent debates have been pointing out for a pan-African theory of modern human development, arguing that the evolution of homo sapiens had been contemporary in the African continent – from Ethiopia to Congo, from Morocco to South Africa – to subsequently spread throughout the rest of the globe, via the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, Sicily, Gibraltar and the Sinai Peninsula,[ii] in a process that became known as Out of Africa.[iii] Groups formed by seventy to ninety people, comprised by wise men in good physical condition, warriors, hunters, women in their fertile period, children capable of long distance traveling, is the number predicted as sustainable to succeed while migrating in search of new places to live and chasing large herbivore herds.

If this presence has led indelible genetic traces in the Iberian Peninsula, the later trade relations or passage and permanency of people from north Africa and the Middle east such as Phoenicians (VIII b.c.) and Iberos (VI b.c.), Egyptians once governed by the pharaoh Taharqa (25th Dynasty) and Carthaginian headed by general Anibal or yet the romanization of the Iberian Peninsula – which brought strong African influences as well as armies with a large African contingent – testify the weight of these peoples and civilizations in the political organization, institutional architecture, technology, habits and writing in the Iberian Peninsula.[iv] Furthermore, the several Moorish caliphates composed by Arab, Berbers and Islamised persons from the west of Africa – from areas such as Senegambia, between the VII and XV centuries – brought countless important technologic, agricultural, medical, socio-cultural and linguistic changes and advances, which have translated into the present day.

Yet, these contributions often remain invisibilized. Indeed, only after 1492 (the year signaling the expulsion of jewish and islamic communities from the Iberian Peninsula and the arrival of Christopher Colombus to North America) can we start finding more consistent information on the history of African presence in Portugal. This happens as the disembarkation of enslaved persons in Portugal – which started in Lagos, 1444 – increases, raising the number of enslaved and freed black populations in the country, and had a strong impact on the material and immaterial heritage (i.e., architecture, religiosity, music and dance, such as fado or fandango). While the exploitation of people’s lives was fundamental to the accumulation of wealth, black persons from diverse latitudes of the African continent would become a structuring element in the rural and urban living in Portuguese society. The African population in cities such as Braga or Lisbon rose to 10% across the fifteenth century.[v] If it is true that currently the absence of ethno-racial data collection makes it impossible to have an accurate portrait of the African and black population in Portugal. We know that in 2019, people with nationality from African Portuguese-speaking Countries (PALOP) represented 0.9% of the Portuguese population. Yet, nowadays, we know that the African and black population is diverse in its origins and that its contributions stretch out to several areas and sectors, from the arts to knowledge production, medicine to gastronomy, construction industry to agriculture, music to writing, sports to water conservation, among many others.

The Platform DAM aims to be a repository of the testimonies of this/these history/histories. Articulating with a set of ongoing initiatives, such as the placing of plates that add the African and black presence into the toponymy of the city of Lisbon, inscribing this absence presence and prompting celebrations and future works that contribute to uncover the history of African and black presence in Portugal.


[i] Alcaraz‑Castaño, 2021.

[ii] Padilla-Iglesias, 2023.

[iii] Tattersall, 2009; Wilshaw, 2018.

[iv] Moreira, 2013.

[v] Henriques, 2008.


ALCARAZ‑CASTAÑO, M. (2021). First modern human settlement recorded in the Iberian hinterland occurred during Heinrich Stadial 2 within harsh environmental conditions, Scientific Reports 11 (1): 1-25.

HENRIQUES, I.C. (2009). A Herança Africana em Portugal. CTT Correios Portugal. Lisbon.

MOREIRA, A. R. (2013). “Desorientalização”, mestiçagem e autoctonia. O discurso historiográfico moderno sobre a nação periférica. In M. C. da Silva, Castelos a Bombordo. Etnografias de Patrimónios Africanos e Memórias Portuguesas. Lisboa: Etnográfica Press, pp. XX.

PADILLA-IGLESIAS, C. (2023). Did Humanity Really Arise in One Place?

TATTERSALL, I. (2009). Human origins: Out of Africa, PNAS 106 (38): 16018 –16021.

WILSHAW, A. (2018). Out of Africa hypothesis, in Wenda Trevathan (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology, pp. 1-7.

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Old Age

Old Age
3000 B.C. – C. 1800 B.C. | CHALCOLITHIC

Network of beaker villages: small settlement units, with family roots. Need to visualize the space from a great distance (control) and some type of fortification.

2000 B.C. UNTIL C. 800 B.C. | BRONZE AGE

Centralization of ancient settlements: emergence of centers of political-economic power, in height, dominant over the landscape and over other settlement nuclei. Indigenous elites who will be the interlocutors with the Phoenicians African people from North Africa (probably arrived in the 9th century BC, judging by the dates in Almaraz).


Bratrikus entered the south of the Iberian peninsula and built his capital in Talikha, close to present-day Seville.

878 B.C. | Phoenicians

Phoenician peoples of North African origins prior to Arab colonialism, founded Carthage. Over the next few hundred years waves of Phoenician and Western Phoenician (Carthaginian) trade arrive in Olisipo.

750 B.C. At 138 B.C. | OLISIPO

The settlement, later known as Olisipo (-ipo means «place on a height», in the Turdula language of the south of the peninsula), appears on the Castelo hill and next to the riverfront.


Presence in the Iberian Peninsula of the general Kemetian (ancient Egypt) Taharka (tarraca in Latin) later becomes pharaoh by resignation of his uncle. Last Nubian king who ruled Egypt. Taharqa, was the son of Piye and took the throne in 690 BC, after the death of his uncle Shabaka. He distinguished himself as a warrior and military leader even before he became pharaoh. Current presence of the protective Egyptian eye on the fishing boats of Costa da Caparica, and of the scarab-shaped amulets found in archaeological excavations in the Sado valley and elsewhere in Iberia.

400 A.C

II Punic Wars. Punic Wars – War of Rome against the African peoples of North Africa – Carthaginians. Presence in Iberia of Hannibal, the African who asked the local people for help to fight against Rome with his armored elephants.

200 A.C.
188/9-199 | PAPACY OF VICTOR I

Pope St Victor was the first Pope born on the African continent, in living memory. He was bishop of Rome and worked in the city of Leptis Magna and the region of Tripolitanea. His episcopate was marked by disputes within the church linked to the homogenisation of the date for the celebration of Easter and the beginning of the use of Latin in place of Greek, used until then by other popes. While several historians argue that he was a black man of Amazigh origin, Pope Victor I is essentially represented as a white man. The estimated year of his death is 199.


  1. ecWiki Enciclopédia Católica Online (s.d.). Papa San Víctor I. [https://ec.aciprensa.com/wiki/Papa_San_V%C3%ADctor_I
  2. Kirsch, J. P. (1912). Pope St. Victor I, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15408a.htm].
  3. Lista de Papas (s.d.). Lista de Papas. [https://listadepapas.com/
  4. Sertima, I. V. (1985). African Presence in Early Europe, Journal of African Civilizations
311-314 | Papacy of Pope Miltiades

Saint Miltiades – the African – was the thirty-second pope and Bishop of Rome. Born in Rome of Amazigh descent, he was elected on 2 June 311 AD. It was during his pontificate that, through the Edict of Milan, Christianity was granted legal status in the Roman Empire.


  1. Lista de Papas (s.d.). Lista de Papas. [https://listadepapas.com/
  2. Sertima, I. V. (1985). African Presence in Early Europe, Journal of African Civilizations.



Invasion of the Roman Empire by the so-called barbarians. Vandals, Alans and Suebi head to the Iberian Peninsula.


The last Roman governor of the city of Olisipo, Lusidius, transfers power to the Swabian king. The city will have passed to the government of the Visigoths, shortly afterwards.


End of the Western Roman Empire.


Pope Gelasius I was born in 410 AD in the Roman province of North Africa, therefore “born a Roman in Africa”. He was Bishop of Rome from 1 March 492 until his death on 19 November 496 – the third and last Pope of Amazigh origin in the history of the Catholic Church. Orthodox, he worked for several years as an assistant to his predecessor and became known as the most prolific writer among church leaders, writing more than 100 treatises and letters and defining the authority of the papacy for five centuries after his death. Many of his writings can be found in the Vatican library in Rome.


  1. Lista de Papas (s.d.). Lista de Papas. [https://listadepapas.com/].
  2. Sertima, I. V. (1985). African Presence in Early Europe, Journal of African Civilizations

More Africanized dynasties were those of the Almoravids (1086) and Almohads (1145), in the middle between the two, as well as before and after them, there were independent and fractioned kingdoms, the «taifas», until the last days of al-Muslim kingdoms -Andalus in 1492;

Both during and outside the «more Africanized» governments, the Arabs (mainly Yemenis, Egyptians, Syrians) were in the majority, from a numerical point of view, compared to the Amazigh (Berbers) themselves; but there is already a presence of Berbers in the Peninsula (namely in the west) even before there was al-Andalus (before 711);

This was not an invasion (or an occupation), nor exactly an invitation, but a relatively non-belligerent conquest, sometimes favored by the elites, who in some cases were left with a certain amount of local power. That’s why it was quick, taking into account that the Visigoths were in a major crisis (economic, cultural, etc.) and the Muslims were in the dawn of the apogee of their civilization (soon they took with them knowledge, new institutions, greater possibilities of wealth, etc. ); moreover, the very Islamic institution of the dhimmah (pact of protection and coexistence), allowed peaceful coexistence between Jews, Christians and Muslims, facilitated the spread of Islamic power, migration continued over decades.


Muslim conquest of Olisipona. The city gains a new name, Al – Ushbuna.

Middle Ages

Middle Ages
Almoravids and Almohad peoples Amazigh, (Berbers), Fulani and other North African converts to Islam, join the Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula to repel the Christian advance.
1147 | D. Afonso Henriques conquers Al-Ushbuna
Al-Ushbuna has a population of around 12,000. On October 25, 1147, King D. Afonso Henriques conquered the city from the Moors. As allies it has crusaders, coming from the north of Europe.
1170 | Charter to the freed Moors of Lisbon, by D. Afonso Henriques
1348 - Black Death

Black Death, introduced by sea and land, affected all the provinces of the kingdom, causing countless victims. It is assumed that between 1/3 to ½ of the population perished. In the following years, the pestilences were repeated, although with less impact. The sudden decrease in the number of inhabitants caused by disease, famine and war (and earthquakes) translated into problems of labor shortages, especially in urban centers. Artisans were sought out, which resulted in an increase in wages and the rural worker fleeing to the city, where they were paid better.

1391 | The anti-Jewish movement in Spain

The anti-Jewish movement in Spain led to the growth of the Jewish community in Portugal, many were considered black Jews. Hundreds of Jews emigrated from Spain to Portugal. They settled first in the cities closest to their entrance (on the coast for those who traveled by sea and those in the interior of the border for those who arrived by land) and gradually expanded their area of occupation.

1415 | Beginning of Portuguese maritime expansion and wars of conquest

It began with the conquest of Ceuta from the Arab colonizing elite coming from the Arabian peninsula and the African peoples of Morocco already colonized by Islam.


According to historian Vitorino Magalhães Godinho, the first 10 to 18 Azeneg “captives” arrived in Portugal in 1441, “taken prisoner” on the Saharan coast, kidnapped by Antão Gonçalves and Nuno Tristão, in an ambush at a camp in Porto de Cavaleiro (Rio do Ouro), from whom the first information about the Saharan hinterland was obtained, making it easier for 29 more people to join them on the following voyage in 1443. Godinho also mentions that, according to Eanes Gomes Zurara, Tristão “was driven by the desire to take captives in such numbers that the infante would begin to profit from the expenses incurred in travelling” (1983: 155).


Godinho, V.M. (1983). Os Descobrimentos e a Economia Mundial, Volume IV. Lisbon: Editorial Presença.


The first raids on the African coast that resulted in the imprisonment of African and black people began in the 1440s that, according to the chronicler Gomes Eanes Zurara, brought to Lagos, on the Algarve coast, the first contingent of 235 African women, children and men kidnapped and imprisoned off the coast of Mauritania, on August 8, 1444, witnessed by the curiosity of many people who gathered there (Henriques & Silva, 2020:61). It is this event that largely marks the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade. In fact, it is estimated that between the mid-1400s and 1761, around 400,000 men, women and children were brought to Portugal (Lahon, 2004). In fact, between the 16th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that Portugal and Brazil (independent since 1822) were responsible for half of the 12M estimated enslaved people across the atlantic.


  1. Castro Henriques, I. & da Silva, J.M. (2020). Os “Pretos do Sado”: História e memória de uma comunidade alentejana de origem Africana (Séculos XV-XX). Lisboa: Edições Colibri.
  2. Lahon, D. (2004). O escravo africano na vida económica e social portuguesa do Antigo Regime, Africana Studia 7, 73-100.
  3. Voyages Database (2009). Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, http://www.slavevoyages.org.


  1. Brandão, J. (1541). Da valia dos escravos que vem a esta cidade”, Estatística de Lisboa.
  2. Caldeira, A.M. (2019). Africanos em Lisboa no século XIX, Convivência(s)/Coexistence: Lisboa Plural, 1147-1910. 
  3. Castro Henriques, I. (2019c). Roteiro Histórico de uma Lisboa Africana Séculos XV-XXI. Portugal: Alto Comissariado para as Migrações.
  4. Castro Henriques, I. & Leite, P.P. (2013). Lisboa, Cidade Africana: Percursos e Lugares de Memória da Presença Africana, Séculos XV-XXI. Lisboa/Ilha de Moçambique: Marca d’Água – Publicações e Projetos.
  5. Fonseca, J. (2010). Escravos e senhores na Lisboa quinhentista. Lisboa: Colibri.
  6. Júlio, A. (2021). O adro da Igreja de São Domingos (Lisboa) Análise de uma série osteológica Pós-Medieval. Dissertação de Mestrado em Evolução e Biologia Humanas apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra. Portugal. 
  7. Manso, C. et al. (2022). Afro-Portuguese Ivories from Campo das Cebolas (Lisbon, Portugal). In J. S. Horta, C. Almeida, and P. Mark (eds.), African Ivories in the Atlantic World 1400-1900, 535–552. Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa.
  8. Neto, M.C. (1994). Os negros em Lisboa no século XIX. Tentativa de caracterização histórico-biológica, Garcia de Orta – Série de Antropobiologia 7, 1 e 2.
  9. Pereira, F.B. (1999). Chafariz del Rei no século XVI, Os negros em Portugal. Séculos XV a XIX. Lisboa: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, 104-107.
  10. Ponce, M. et al. (2017). O Sítio dos Lagares (Lisboa): Um Espaço Pluricultural. In J. Arnaud, C. Neves & A. Martins, Arqueologia em Portugal, 2017: Estado da Questão, 1703–1714. Lisboa: Associação dos Arqueólogos Portugueses.
  11. Rijo, D. (2012). Os escravos na Lisboa Joanina. Porto: CITCEM.
  12. Santana, F. (1988). Processos de escravos e forros na Inquisição de Lisboa, Ler História 13, 15-30.
  13. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.
  14. Serrão, V. (2002). O Chafariz del Rei da Ribeira Velha, em Lisboa, numa valiosa pintura do fim do século XVI, Estudos de história da arte. Novos contributos. Lisboa: Câmara Municipal, 69-76. 
  15. Simões, S. (2015). Uma Panela na Rua da Saudade, Lisboa – Legado de Populações Escravas em Portugal? In Fuente, C. Garcia, L. Alaiza, B. Beloqui e C. Álvarez (eds.), Actas VII JIA, Arqueologias Sociales, Arqueologia em Sociedade. Vitória: Arkeogazt, 151–160.
  16. Sucena, E. (1994). Mocambo, Dicionário de História de Lisboa, 584.
  17. Sweet, J. (2013). The Hidden Histories of African Lisbon. In J. Cañizares- Esguerra et al. (org.), The Black Urban Atlantic in the age of the Slave Trade. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 233-247.
  18. Trindade, L. & Diogo, A. (2000). Elementos sobre o Cemitério do adro da Igreja de S. Domingos, Arqueologia e História 52, 59–71.
  19. Trindade, L. et al. (2001). Elementos para o Estudo dos Restos Humanos da Intervenção Arqueológica de 1991 no Cemitério do adro da Igreja de São Domingos em Lisboa, Arqueologia e História 53, 109–124.
  20. Vogt, J. (1973). The Lisbon Slave House and African Trade 1486-1521, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 117 (1), 1-16.

On June 18, 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the Bull “Dum Diversas” which granted the Portuguese crown the right to capture territories and reduce the non-Christian populations of West Africa to the condition of “perpetual slaves”.


  1. Papa Nicolau V (1452). Bula “Dum Diversas”, 18 de junho.


Modern Age

Modern Age

In 1453, the royal chronicler Eanes Gomes de Zurara delivered to the then King Afonso V the manuscript A Crónica do Descobrimento e Conquista da Guiné (or, according to the edition, Crónica dos Feitos da Guiné), an essential document since it bears witness to the solidification of the Portuguese colonial enterprise on the African continent, as well as the beginning of transatlantic slavery.


  1. Leite, D. (1941). Acerca da “Crónica dos feitos de Guinee”. Lisbon: Livraria Bertrand.
  2. Zurara, G.E. (1989). Crónica do Descobrimento e Conquista da Guiné. Lisbon: Publicações Europa-América.

The “Romanus Pontifex” was issued by Pope Nicholas V in 1454 and granted the Portuguese crown the right to explore the African and Atlantic coasts, i.e. the exclusivity to sail, commercialize and take possession of the regions south of Cape Bojador.


  1. Papa Nicolau V (1454). Bula “Romanus Pontifex”, January 8.


  1. Fonseca, J. (2020). “De Escravos a Negros livres no Sul de Portugal“. In M. D. Barros & A.P. Gato (eds.), Desigualdades – Estudos & Colóquios 21.
  2. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

In 1466, the German Gabriel Teztel described a high presence of blacks and Moors in the city. Later, the humanist and pedagogue Nicolau Clenardo would reinforce the same idea, saying “(…) as soon as I set foot in Évora I thought I had been transported to a city from hell: everywhere I saw black people”. In fact, according to the Afro-digital Museum, more than 5% of the population was enslaved.


  1. Fonseca, J. (1997). Escravos em Évora no século XVI. Évora: Câmara Municipal de Évora.
  2. Fonseca, J. (1996-97). Fugas de escravos na região de Évora (Século XVII), A Cidade de Évora, 2ª série, 2, 211-228.
  3. Museu Afro-digital. Estação Portugal.[https://museudigitalafroportugues.wordpress.com/sobre/evora/].
  4. Maurício. D. (1977). A Universidade de Évora e a EscravaturaDidaskalia VII: 153-200.
  5. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.
  6. Letts, M. H. (1953 [1882]). The travels of Leo of Rozmital through Germany, Flanders, England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, 1465-1467. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Fonseca, J. (2020). A Confraria do Rosário de Óbidos no século XVI: piedade, convívio e solidariedade da comunidade negra, Lusitania Sacra 41, 41-60.
  2. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Barros, A. (2004). O Porto e o trato de escravos no século XVI, Africana Studia 7. Porto: Centro de Estudos Africanos da Universidade do Porto, 31-51.
  2. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.
  3. Valença, M. (2003). Escravatura na região do Porto (1591-1795). Braga: Editorial Franciscana.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Gorjão Henriques, J. (2020). Detectives procuram presença de população negra em Setúbal, Público, 7 de março. [https://www.publico.pt/2020/03/07/local/reportagem/detectives-procuram-presenca-populacao-negra-setubal-1906738
  2. Alcântara, A, Roldão, C. e Cruz, C. (2019). Visita à Setúbal Negra (séc. XV-XVIII): Desocultar a história local através da educação não-formal, Medi@ções – Revista Online da Escola Superior de Educação do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal 72, 66-85 [http://mediacoes.ese.ips.pt/index.php/mediacoesonline/article/view/241/pdf].
  3. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

Entry into Portugal of Castilian Jews in large numbers. After the Alhambra decree, after the conquest of Granada from the last Caliph of Granada named Boabdil.

After this period, the number of people enslaved from the kingdoms of Senegambia, Congo, Benin, among other peoples of the African continent. Since this forced presence (until the end of the 18th century) or later “by force” (from colonialism from the end of the 19th century to 1974, and the globalization and migrations of our days), several African peoples have settled in the city of Lisbon.


1492 is marked as the year of the fall of Muhammad XII’s Granada by the Catholic kings, the year in which Christopher Columbus arrived in North America, as well as the year in which the Treaty of Alhambra was signed, decreeing the expulsion of all Jews from the kingdom of Spain (who entered Portugal in large numbers).

According to anthropologist Michel-Rolph Trouillot (1995), the West was created during the 16th century following a series of material and symbolic transformations: i) the expulsion of the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula; ii) the inauguration of imperial voyages and colonial trade with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in North America; iii) the maturing of absolutist monarchies. In turn, Europe – the mirror and synonym for the West – was consolidated by the creation of a Greco-Roman past, the westernisation of Christianity and the drawing of an imaginary line from the south of Cadiz to the north of Constantinople – a meta-geographical space that delimited a historical, ideological and political arena (Trouillot, 1995; Asad, 2005). This is also the context in which Europe is placed in the position of coloniser and the belief is inaugurated that European civilisation – now the West – possesses a “historical advantage” granted by a racial, cultural, environmental, mental or spiritual “quality” that gives it permanent superiority over other human communities (Blaut, 1993). In fact, the process of colonisation and the inauguration of capitalism as a new global power and model of domination was based on the classification of people based on racial criteria, which built up and naturalised the differences between coloniser/colonised, constructing (new) structures (and control) of work, access to resources and the production of (racial/eurocentric) knowledge (Quijano, 2000).

Slavery and the construction of Race”, refers to how the European sharing of a racial and cultural conception of the “other” gave rise to the conception of a European “we”, anchored in three essential pillars, post-1492: (i) despite the competition between Catholics and Protestants, everyone was Christian; (ii) notwithstanding the fact that struggles for sovereignty/succession were constant, all spaces were centralised monarchies; (iii) although instrumentalised in different ways, a philosophical humanism was present in Europe that seemed to have in common a discourse related to the consecration of individual rights; and, in fact, it is the creation of an idea of distinct units that sustains that individuals are liable to be enslaved (2003:4).

If, in the pre-transatlantic slavery period, the process was limited to Europe, to the enslavement of Roma/Gypsies, Slavs, Jews and Muslims, based on the argument of “religious infidelity”, according to which all “infidels” could be enslaved; with the start of the transatlantic traffic, the terms of the debate changed: while it was considered that Africans were “gentle” and had the capacity to convert to Christianity, presenting a potential for integration into the emerging nation-states, it was also insisted that because they were “barbarians”, their capacity to convert was uncertain (with rare exceptions) and that they were liable to be enslaved (Idem). The papal bulls of 1452 and 1454 then conferred the right of King Afonso V of Portugal to enslave all infidels in West Africa and proclaimed the right of Europeans to conquer and enslave all populations south of Cape Bojador, under the pretext of a civilising mission (Idem: 6).

The racist propositions that justified slavery were visible through language, particularly in Portuguese, since “African slaves” were distinguished from “Moors” by the term “negro”, while the term “black Moor” implied a double “outrification” based on the intersection of racial and religious criteria. In the second half of the 15th century in the Iberian Peninsula, the term “negro” was equivalent to “slave”, although slavery was later extended to indigenous populations as well (Ibidem). It should be noted that this concept of race, which was operationalised in the 15th century in some Mediterranean countries such as Portugal and Spain, “quickly came to mark Europe, as well as colonial and imperial societies, especially during the construction of state sovereignty” (Goldberg, 2009:3).


  1. Goldberg, D.T. (2009). Buried Alive”. In D.T. Goldberg, The threat of race: reflections on racial neoliberalism. Oxford: Wiley G Blackwell, pp.1-31.
  2. Sweet, J. H. (2003), Spanish and Portuguese Influences on Racial Slavery in British North America 1492-1619, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Lehrman Centre International Conference at Yale University Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race.
  3. Trouillot, M.R. (1995), Silencing the past. Power and the Production of History. Boston: Beacon Press.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

Edict of expulsion of Jews and Moors from the kingdom, by D. Manuel I. In Lisbon, the Moors with about 5 ha, must not have exceeded 500 souls in the 15th century. The number of Moors throughout the century decreased: some affected by disease and the plague, others emigrated to North Africa and Granada, or even through miscegenation, when they joined Christian society.

Unlike the Moorish communities, the Jewish ones increased both in number and in economic power. Maria José Ferro Tavares estimated the Jewish population at around 30,000 inhabitants. The miscegenation rate was very low – rejection came from the Jewish community itself and from the penalties for those who dared to maintain relations between elements of the Christian and Jewish communities. In Lisbon, there were three Jewish quarters and a housing nucleus (extinct in 1317, in Pedreira): Old or Great Jewry, New or Tercenas Jewry and Alfama Jewry.



  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

Hundreds or even thousands of families migrated to Madeira or the Azores, and in the following years they also migrated to other places beyond the sea, leaving records of the presence of black Portuguese in all these places. United States, Hawaii among others.



  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

The composer Vicente Lusitano was born in Olivença (then still part of what would become the Spanish state), around 1920, the son of a Portuguese father and an Angolan mother and described in contemporary sources as ‘mestizo’ or ‘pardo’. A priest in the habit of St Peter, Lusitano is the first black European composer recorded in the history of European music and the first Portuguese composer whose anthology was published abroad. He moved to Italy, passing through cities such as Padua, Viterbo and Rome, where he wrote, composed and debated, which would have earned him a reputation as a musical theorist, and much of his music is largely unknown to this day. He died in Rome around 1561. Recently, the Arte Mínima group gave voice to the project The Secret Music of Vicente Lusitano with the aim of publicizing the motets from the collection Liber Primus Epigramatum, published in 1551 in Rome.


  1. Barbosa, M.A. (1977). Vicentus Lusitanus, Ein Portugiesischer Komponist und Musiktheoretiker des 16 Janhrhunderts. Lisboa: Secretaria de Estado da Cultura, Direção-Geral do Património Cultural. 
  2. Blackburn, B.J. (2001). Lusitano, Vicente [Lusitanus, Vicentius], Oxford Music Online, https://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/search?q=Vicente+Lusitano&searchBtn=Search&isQuickSearch=true
  3. Henriques, L. (2018). “Acerca do motete Heu me Domine de Vicente Lusitano”, Glosas online. http://glosas.mpmp.pt/motete-heu-me-domine-vicente-lusitano/ 
  4. Joaquim, M. (1951). “Um madrigal de Vicente Lusitano publicado no Libro delle Muse”. Gazeta Musical, 13-14. 
  5. Machado, D. B. (1752). Bibliotheca Lusitana. Tomo III. Lisboa: Na Officina de Ignacio Rodrigues. 
  6. Stevenson, R. (1962). Vicente Lusitano: New Light on his Career, Journal of the American Musicologist al Society 15/1, 72-77.
  7. Williams, H. (2022). O grande compositor negro do século 16 apagado da história, BBC News Brasil, 17 de julho [https://www.bbc.com/portuguese/vert-cul-62069401].
  8. A Música Secreta de Vicente Lusitano [https://www.vicentelusitano.org].


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.


  1. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

African cultural practices were in this period quite persecuted and demonized, with the burning of people in the main places of judgment in the villages.



  1. Almeida, M.C. (1956). Mulatos no Concelho de Alcácer do Sal. Subsídios para a definição étnica das gentes do Vale do Sado. Lisboa: Ramos, Afonso e Moita Limitada.
  2. BBC (2023). Descobertas arqueológicas obrigam Portugal a rever mito sobre escravidão, BBC, 27 de setembro.
  3. Carmo, M. et al. (2020). African knowledge transfer in Early Modern Portugal: Enslaved people and rice cultivation in Tagus and Sado rivers, Diacronie. Studi di Storia Contemporanea 44 (4), 44-66.
  4. Carvalho, A.R. (2009). Torrão do Alentejo: Arqueologia, História e Património (Volume 3) – Cronologia e Bibliografia. Alcácer do Sal: Junta de Freguesia do Torrão e Câmara Municipal de Alcácer do Sal.
  5. Castro Henriques, I. e Silva, J.M. (2020). Os “Pretos do Sado”: História e memória de uma comunidade alentejana de origem Africana (Séculos XV-XX). Lisboa: Edições Colibri.
  6. Chaínho, A.G. (2019). A escrava Domingas. Grândola: Batoto Yetu Portugal.
  7. Giacometti, M., LIMA, P. (2010). Ladrão do Sado – Inquérito Musical em Alcácer do Sal, Tradisom.
  8. Gomes, M.R.R. (2008). A ‘Ilha dos Pretos’: análise da fecundidade e ilegitimidade na freguesia de São Romão do Sadão entre 1679-1729, Archport, Universidade de Coimbra.
  9. Mango, V. (2013). Negros de Alcácer ou Mulatos da Ribeira do Sado, Comporta-Opina, Cultura e Lazer, Alcácer do Sal.
  10. Mendes, V. (s.d.). “Negros do Sado”, texto policopiado, Rio de Moínhos.
  11. Neto, M.C. (2004). O compromisso da confraria de Nossa Senhora do Rosário de Palma (Alcácer do Sal), Boletim da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, Série 122ª., nº. 1-12, pp. 89-93.
  12. Neto, M.C. (2002). Nótula sobre a Irmandade de Nossa Senhora do Rosário, Freguesia de São Romão, Memória Alentejana 5.
  13. Neto, M.C. (2001). A Escravatura em São Romão do Sado, Memórias do Instituto de Malariologia de Águas de Moura – da luta anti-palúdica ao museu. Palmela: Câmara Municipal de Palmela e CEVDI- Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge.
  14. Neto, M.C. (1996). Proprietários de escravos em São Romão do Sado, 1666-1765, Boletim da Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa, Série 114, nºs. 1-12, 159-163. Lisboa: Sociedade de Geografia.
  15. Neto, M.C. (1984). A população escrava entre 1603 e 1632 na freguesia de Santa Maria do Castelo (Alcácer do Sal) através dos livros de baptismo, Actas do 4º Congresso do Algarve, Montechoro, 213-219.
  16. Rau, V. (1984). Estudos sobre a história do sal português. Lisboa, Editorial Presença.
  17. Saunders, A.C. (1994). História social dos escravos e libertos negros em Portugal (1441-1555). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.
  18. Vasconcelos, J. L. (1898). Mulatos de Alcácer do Sal, O Archeologo Portuguez, Tomo 1, março.
  19. Vasconcelos, J. L. (1895). Excursão archeologica a Alcacer-do-Sal, O Archeologo Português 1(3), 5-92.

Diogo Fernandes Fogueira, uncle of Manuel Fernandes Fogueira, born in Moura, was authorized to receive a knighthood from the Order of Christ in 1689. Fogueira had an extensive record of service in Portugal, in the navies and in India. Although he was a noble knight of the Royal House, he needed a dispensation for lack of quality from his father and paternal grandparents, journeymen, just as Diogo had been. His paternal grandmother had been a baker. But Diogo’s mother was mulatto. In the words of the Bureau of Conscience and Orders, his mother and paternal grandfather were descended from mulattoes because their great-grandmother was black. In this case, a dispensation was granted due to the impediment of lack of quality (Dutra, 2011: 110).


  1. Dutra, F.A. (2011). Ser mulato em Portugal nos primórdios da Época Moderna, Tempo, Rio de Janeiro, 30, 101-114.

In the reports of foreigners who visited Portugal, the various social groups are described in a generic way. Those of African origin drew attention. They circulated in the streets carrying to the river the waste and dirt produced in the houses, without toilets, or performing other discrediting tasks. As a result of miscegenation between white and black popular classes from Africa or Brazil, mixed-race people also stand out. Enslaved people or freedmen shared the day-to-day life of the white population. Blacks were also accused of witchcraft or sorcery by the Inquisition or served sentences in the galleys by
order of the civil courts.


In 1760, the Italian Giuseppe Barreti visits Lisbon and notes the high number of black people living in the city. In 1801, there were around 15,000 black people in Lisbon, out of a total of 220,000 residents (Reginaldo, 2018: 1). This phenomenon could also be observed in cities such as Porto, Faro and Évora. However, according to António de Almeida Mendes (2012), the presence of people who had been born in Africa or were of African origin represented 15% to 20% of Lisbon’s population in the 16th century.


  1. Reginaldo, L. (2018). “Não tem informação”: mulatos, pardos e pretos na Universidade de Coimbra (1700-1771), Estudos Ibero-Americanos, 44 (3): 421-434.

Every first end of May or beginning of June, the “Cherry Festival” takes place in Gemunde, in the municipality of Maia (Metropolitan Area of Porto). The name was used to escape the scrutiny of the dictatorship that banned the cult of the “Black Saint”, who was never recognised by the Church. Legend has it that in 1790, an owner of Guilhabreu, possibly the nobleman Gonçalo Mendes, the Lidador of Maia, tortured one of the enslaved men, his servant, to death on the public highway. Gonçalo Mendes is said to have advanced on a woman he had sent to his house and she fled, entering a cornfield; when she refused, the Lidador of Maia ordered a group of enslaved men to burn the cornfield from various angles so that she wouldn’t come out alive. However, one of the men refused and let her escape. Unauthorised, the Lidador da Maia orders this man to saddle his horse and accompany him to the Boa Hora Festivities, tying him to the horse, dragging him and dismembering him through friction with the ground. The locals, witnessing the horror, collect the different parts of his body and bury him in Gemunde, in a place that would become known as the “Campa do Preto”. The cult of the Black Saint grew and is still celebrated today.


  1. Câmara Municipal da Maia (s.d.). A Campa do Preto [https://www.cm-maia.pt/cultura/estorias-e-memorias/publicacoes/a-campa-do-preto]. 
  2. Perdida na História (2011). A campa do Preto, 18 de dezembro. [http://perdidanahistoria.blogspot.com/2011/12/campa-do-preto.html]
  3. Revolucionários Castêlo (2008). Lenda da Campa do Preto. 28 de fevereiro. [https://revolucionariosdocastelo.blogs.sapo.pt/3934.html]  
  4. Santos, A. (2022). Arrancam hoje as Festas Campa do Preto e Cerejas na Maia, Notícias Primeira Mão, 27 de maio. [https://noticiasprimeiramao.pt/arrancam-hoje-as-festas-campa-do-preto-e-cerejas-na-maia/]
  5. Vieira, A.B. (2023). Preto sobrevive a memória de um Na Campa do “santo” escravo que a ditadura quis apagar, Público, 31 de outubro. [https://www.publico.pt/2023/10/31/p3/noticia/campa-preto-sobrevive-memoria-santo-escravo-ditadura-quis-apagar-2068675 ]

Contemporary Age

Contemporary Age

The Contemporary Age is understood as the period between the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the present day. However, it is important to emphasise that this Eurocentric chronology of history silences the Revolution of Santo Domingo (now Haiti), where, between 1791 and 1803, the black Jacobins rose victoriously against slavery and the colonialism of the French Empire, consolidating themselves as the First Black Republic in history. The central role of cultural resistance, particularly religious resistance, should be highlighted, since it was on the night of 22 August, after the Bwa Kayiman – the voodoo ceremony in which the insurrection was being planned – that the revolution began. Both the resistance and the corresponding repression echoed around the world.


  1. Alves, A. R. (2019). Um silêncio ensurdecedor: a resistência como memória impossível | Silence is a sound: resistance as an (im)possible memory. In B. S. Martins, A. C. Santos & S. Lopes (org.), As sociedades contemporâneas e os direitos humanos | Contemporary societies and human rights. Brasil: Editus
  2. James, C.L.R. (1989). The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo
    revolution. New York: Vintage Books.
  3. Small, S. & Walvin, J. (2012). African Resistance to Enslavement. In M. Schalkwijk & S. Small (eds.), New Perspectives on slavery and colonialism. Amesterdam: Amrit/Ninsee, 41-49.

In 16th February 1821, a bill was introduced authorizing Jews (sometimes called Black Jews) and Moors to return to Portugal, with all the privileges and rights that medieval legislation had once guaranteed them. Portugal thus reopened itself to the return of the Jewish community. Return already started at the end of the 18th century. Coming from Gibraltar, Morocco and other regions, some families established residence on the Portuguese mainland and on the Islands. Several commercial firms started activity. Until 1851, hundreds of individuals justified the existence of their own synagogues and cemeteries.


It is not known exactly when Herculano Firmino das Mercês, musician and “one of the most brilliant” ballroom dance teachers of the 1830s, was born in Lisbon. According to Aristóteles Kandimba (2021), it cannot be ascertained until what age he lived. Herculano das Mercês was appointed professor at Lisbon’s National Conservatory in 1839.


  1. Kandimba, A. (2021). A Balada de Herculano Mercês: Uma obra sobre um dos maiores mestres das danças de salão da década de 1830 em Lisboa. Lisboa: Edição de Autor.

September 19, 1761 | Prohibition of the Introduction of New Enslaved Persons into the Metropolis

May 25, 1773 | Free Womb Law

December 10, 1836 | Prohibition of the Trafficking of Enslaved Persons in all Domains of the Portuguese Empire

February 27, 1869 | Abolition of Slavery in all Domains of the Portuguese Empire.



ALEXANDRE, V. (1991). Portugal e a abolição do tráfico de escravos (1834-51), Análise Social XXVI (111), p. 293-333.

LAHON, D. (1999). O Negro no Coração do Império. Uma memória a resgatar – Séculos XV a XIX. Lisboa: Ministério da Educação. Secretariado Coordenador dos Programas de Educação Multicultural.

MARQUES, J.P. (2004). Portugal e o fim da escravidão: uma reforma em contraciclo, Africana Studia 7, pp. 137-161.

MARQUES, J.P. (2001). Uma cosmética demorada: as cortes perante o problema da escravidão (1836-1875), Análise Social XXXVI (158-159), pp. 209-247.

MARQUES, J.P. (1999). Os sons do silêncio: o Portugal de Oitocentos e a abolição do tráfico de escravos. Lisboa: Instituto de Ciências Sociais.

MENDES, A. A. (2016). “Escravidão e raça em Portugal: uma experiência de longa duração”. In Myriam Cottias et Hebe Mattos (dir.), ESCRAVIDÃO E SUBJETIVIDADES no Atlântico luso-brasileiro e francês (Séculos XVII-XX) Marselha: OpenEdition Press.

MINISTÉRIO DA MARINHA (1889). Memória acerca da Extinção da Escravidão e do tráfico de escravatura no território português. Lisboa: Ministério da Marinha.


Carlos Joaquim Tavares was an Angolan doctor who travelled to study, first at the Polytechnic School in Lisbon and, in 1882, at the Medical Surgical School, where he stood out as a brilliant student. According to Jorge Almeida (2020), Carlos Tavares was appointed doctor to the Royal Chamber of Deputies in 1894 – through the intervention of Carlos Lobo d’Ávila, a minister who was his friend and admirer – and became one of King Carlos’ doctors. He was also the doctor chosen by Prince Luís Filipe when he visited the occupied African territories in 1907, part of the Revising Commission of the Pharmacopoeia, Vice-President of the Sociedade das Ciências Médicas de Lisboa and Director of the Sociedade de Banhos de São Paulo. He died in Lisbon in 1912.


  1. A Capital (1913). Falecimento – Dr. Carlos Joaquim Tavares, Ano 3, Número 921, 23 de fevereiro. 
  2. A Voz D’África (1913). Dr. Carlos Joaquim Tavares, 1 de março.
  3. Almeida, J.F. (2020). O Médico Negro do Rei, Buala, 2 de abril. [https://www.buala.org/pt/a-ler/o-medico-negro-do-rei]
  4. Barata, J. (2008). Uma Nosografia de D. Carlos I no centenário do regicídio, Revista da Sociedade Portuguesa de Medicina Interna 15 (2), 141-145. 
  5. Bastos, C. (2015). Entre dois mundos: Thomaz de Mello Breyner e a clínica de sífilis do Desterro, Lisboa. In G. Sanglard et al. (org). Filantropos da Nação. Rio de Janeiro, Editora FGV, 113-132. 
  6. Camacho, B. (1928), Gente Vária. Lisboa: Guimarães & Cia.
  7. Gama, P.S. (2018). Médicos de Lisboa – Alunos da escola Médico-cirúrgica de Lisboa 1837-1889, Tese de Doutoramento, Escola de Sociologia e Políticas Públicas, ISCTE-IUL. Lisboa, Portugal.[https://repositorio.iscte-iul.pt/bitstream/10071/19814/1/PhD_Patricia_Sanches_Gama.pdf.
  8. Guimarães, A. (1987). Imperialismo e Emoções- A Visão de Bordallo Pinheiro”, Sociologia 2, 157-182
  9. Machuqueiro, P. (2013). “Nos bastidores da corte”: O Rei e a Casa Real na crise da Monarquia 1889-1908 – Anexos, Tese de Doutoramento, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas. Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Lisboa, Portugal. 
  10. Ramalho, M.M. (2018). Thomaz de Mello Breyner – Relatos de uma Época do Final da Monarquia ao Estado Novo. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional.
  11. Silva, J. Martins (2002a). Anotações sobre a história do ensino da Medicina em Lisboa, desde a criação da Universidade Portuguesa até 1911 – 2º parte e conclusão, Revista da Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Série III, Volume 7, número 5, 237-249.
  12. Silva, J. Martins (2002b). Anotações sobre a história do ensino da Medicina em Lisboa, desde a criação da Universidade Portuguesa até 1911 – 2º parte e conclusão”, Revista da Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Série III, Volume 7, Número 6, 305-314.
  13. Tavares, Carlos (1899). Dr. Manuel Bento de Souza, Brasil-Portugal, Número 8, 16 de maio.

Andreza do Nascimento (1859-1927), Fernanda do Vale (or even Preta Fernanda) was immortalized by her image at the foot of the statue of the Marquês de Sá da Bandeira in Lisbon. She was popularized in Lisbon’s bohemian scene, either on the prostitution circuit or entertaining audiences dressed as a bullfighter.


  1. Cardoso, M.D. (2017). Do apartheid envergonhado à “Preta Fernanda”: o rasto de África nas ruas de Lisboa, Público, 25 de março.
  2. Cardoso, P. (s.d.). Biografia ou sátira racista? Viagem pelas recordações da Preta Fernanda, Afrolink [https://afrolink.pt/biografia-ou-satira-racista-viagem-pelas-recordacoes-da-preta-fernanda/
  3. Expresso das Ilhas (2017). Ar livre: A preta Fernanda no coração do império, Expresso das Ilhas, 20 outubro. [https://expressodasilhas.cv/opiniao/2017/10/20/ar-livre-a-preta-fernanda-no-coracao-do-imperio/55003#:~:text=Fernanda%20do%20Vale%20inspirou%20uma%20biografia%20romanceada%20sobre,din%C3%A2mica%20da%20prostitui%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20colonial%20no%20cora%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20do%20imp%C3%A9rio
  4. Expresso das Ilhas (2017). Debaixo da nossa Pele IV: Retrato de Uma Senhora, Expresso das Ilhas, 8 agosto 2017. [https://expressodasilhas.cv/opiniao/2017/08/08/debaixo-da-nossa-pele-iv-retrato-de-uma-senhora/54219
  5. Fernandes, C. (2021). Pode o/a subalternizado/a recordar? – uma análise das recordações de Fernanda do Vale. Revista De Comunicação e Linguagens 54. [https://rcl.fcsh.unl.pt/index.php/rcl/article/view/117]
  6. Guinote, P. (2002). The Old Bohemian Lisbon (c. 1870 – c. 1920): Prostitutes, Criminals and Bohemians, Portuguese Studies 18, 71-95. 
  7. Hatton, B. (2018). Queen of the Sea: A History of Lisbon. Oxford University Press. pp. 108–109. 
  8. Monteiro, J.S. et al. (2018). Preta Fernanda, Testemunhos da Escravatura: A Memória Africana no Museu de Lisboa. Lisboa: Câmara Municipal de Lisboa.
  9. Simões, D.G. (2018). Recordações d’uma colonial: autobiografia credível ou sátira racista?, Rev. Interd. em Cult. e Soc. 4, 97-110. 
  10. Totta, A. e Machado, F. (2022). Recordações d’uma Colonial (Memórias da preta Fernanda). Lisboa: Sistema Solar.
  11. Vale, F., Totta, A. & Machado, F. (1912). Recordações d’uma colonial (memorias da preta Fernanda). Wentworth Press.

    Caetano da Costa Alegre is considered to be the first African poet to write about blackness in Portuguese. Born in São Tomé and Príncipe in 1864, Alegre moved with his family to Portugal in 1882, where he began his studies at the Faculty of Medicine in Lisbon. He died prematurely in Alcobaça in 1890. However, his poetry was compiled and published posthumously in the book Versos (1916) by his friend, the journalist Artur da Cruz Magalhães. His remains were laid to rest in the Prazeres Cemetery, where Gonçalves Crespo (1846-1883), also a black poet, and his wife Maria Amália Vaz de Carvalho (1847-1921) already lay. However, only the remains of the latter two were transferred to the writers’ tomb.


    1. Ambrósio, A. (1973).  Almada de Negreiros e Costa Alegre, o poeta de São Tomé. Bissau: s.n.
    2. Bianchi, B. (1976). Caetano da Costa Alegre: Poetic Resolution of a Color Dichotomy. Lisboa: s.n.
    3. Costa Alegre, A. (1916). Versos. Lisboa: Livraria Ferin.
    4. Rodrigues, L (1969). O Livro de Costa Alegre: o poeta de São Tomé e Príncipe. Lisboa : Agência-Geral do Ultramar.
    5. Cardoso, J.M. (2011). Tuberculose mata Costa Alegre”. Tela Non (in portuguese). 30 de abril.
    6. S.A. (2011). “A imprensa: revista científica, literária e artística (1885-1891)”
    7. S.A. (2011). “A Leitura: magazine litterario (1894-1896)., digital copy at Hemeroteca Digital
    8. S.A. (2011). “Portuguese Colonial Literature”. Alguns poemas de Caetano da Costa Alegre, [http://www.antoniomiranda.com.br/poesia_africana/s_tome_princepe/caetano_de_costa.html].
    9. Blogdaruanove (2010). Literatura Colonial Portuguesa, 27 de outubro,[https://literaturacolonialportuguesa.blogs.sapo.pt/7316.html].

    José de Magalhães was born in Angola in 1867 and traveled with his family to Portugal, where he became a doctor and later a professor and director of the Institute of Tropical Medicine. However, his activity also extended to the sphere of politics, having founded the Junta de Defesa dos Direitos de África, the African League and participated in the Pan-African Congress in Lisbon, where he met the renowned US intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois. José de Magalhães also collaborated with a number of periodicals and magazines and was elected to the Assembly of the Republic in 1922 as the representative of São Tomé – thus becoming the second Afro-descendant member of parliament in the history of Portugal. He died in Lisbon in 1959.


    1. Varela, P. (2020). Os dois deputados negros da Primeira República, Afrolink. [https://afrolink.pt/os-dois-deputados-negros-da-primeira-republica-por-pedro-varela/]

    September 19, 1761 | Prohibition of the Introduction of New Enslaved Persons into the Metropolis

    May 25, 1773 | Free Womb Law

    December 10, 1836 | Prohibition of the Trafficking of Enslaved Persons in all Domains of the Portuguese Empire

    February 27, 1869 | Abolition of Slavery in all Domains of the Portuguese Empire


    1. Alexandre, V. (1991). Portugal e a abolição do tráfico de escravos (1834-51)Análise Social XXVI (111), p. 293-333.
    2. Cunha, M. S. (coord.) (2021). Resistências, Insubmissão e Revolta no Império Português. Alfragide: Casa das Letras.
    3. Fonseca, J. (2006). A raia luso-castelhana, espaço de cativeiro e de luta pela liberdade (Séculos XVI-XVII), Revista de Estudios Extremeños LXII (II), 725-738.
    4. Lahon, D. (1999). O Negro no Coração do Império. Uma memória a resgatar – Séculos XV a XIX. Lisboa: Ministério da Educação. Secretariado Coordenador dos Programas de Educação Multicultural.
    5. Marques, J.P. (2008). Sá da Bandeira e o Fim da Escravidão: Vitória da Moral, Desforra do Interesse. Lisboa: Instituto de Ciências Sociais.
    6. Marques, J.P. (2004). Portugal e o fim da escravidão: uma reforma em contraciclo, Africana Studia 7, pp. 137-161.
    7. Marques, J.P. (2001). Uma cosmética demorada: as cortes perante o problema da escravidão (1836-1875), Análise Social XXXVI (158-159), pp. 209-247.
    8. Marques, J.P. (1999). Os sons do silêncio: o Portugal de Oitocentos e a abolição do tráfico de escravos. Lisboa: Instituto de Ciências Sociais.
    9. Mendes, A. A. (2016). “Escravidão e raça em Portugal: uma experiência de longa duração”. In Myriam Cottias et Hebe Mattos (dir.), ESCRAVIDÃO E SUBJETIVIDADES no Atlântico luso-brasileiro e francês (Séculos xvii-xx). Marselha: OpenEdition Press.
    10. Ministério da Marinha (1889). Memória acerca da Extinção da Escravidão e do tráfico de escravatura no território português. Lisboa: Ministério da Marinha.

    Georgina Ribas was born in Angola to a Brazilian businessman and an Angolan mother, a descendant of the Baron of Cabinda – Manuel José Puna. She arrived in Portugal at the age of three and graduated from the National Conservatory in Lisbon. She married Tomaz de Sousa Ribas and from this relationship three children were born: Maria Emília Ribas – who wrote the children’s story “O Preto” – Piedade de Carvalho Ribas and Tomaz Ribas, a man of theater and dance who taught at the Conservatory. As well as being a pianist, Georgina Ribas was a member of the leadership of the African National Party and secretary of the Council of the League of African Women (Roldão, Pereira and Varela, 2023: 119-120).


    1. Roldão, C. (2019). Feminismo negro em Portugal: falta contar-nos, Público, 18 de janeiro. [https://www.publico.pt/2019/01/18/culturaipsilon/noticia/feminismo-negro-portugal-falta-contarnos-1857501].
    2. Roldão, C; Pereira, J.A. & Varela, P. (2023). Tribuna Negra: Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal 1911-1933. Lisboa: Tinta da China. 
    3. RTP (1980), O que eu gostaria de ter sido – Entrevista a Tomaz Ribas, RTP, 3 de março [https://arquivos.rtp.pt/programas/o-que-eu-gostaria-de-ter-sido/#:~:text=O%20que%20eu%20Gostaria%20de%20Ter%20Sido%3F%20S%C3%A9rie,sido%20profissionalmente%20e%20o%20que%20fazem%20na%20realidade.]

      Domingas Lazary do Amaral was born in Angola in 1883, a member of the so-called ‘Creole elite’, as the descendants of white Portuguese emigrants to the colonies were called. According to Sílvia Espírito Santo (2019), on merit, Domingas Lazary won a scholarship to study in Portugal where she joined the Masonic lodge ‘Humanidade do Direito Humano’ under the name Heloísa d’ Abelardo, then returned to Luanda where she married Sebastião José do Amaral, founded the Luanda Children’s College and joined the Republican League of Portuguese Women in 1908. In fact, Domingas Lazary do Amaral “shared with many Angolans the conviction that the new regime, if its ideals were to be believed, would oppose ‘discrimination based on skin color, affiliation or place of birth'” (Santo, 2019: 42). After intense bridges between Lisbon and Luanda, Domingas Lazary do Amaral settled in Lisbon in 1918, “where she began teaching and writing articles for Alma Feminina, the official bulletin of the National Council of Portuguese Women (CNMP)” (Ibidem). Domingas Lazary do Amaral, a pedagogue, advocated for the right of indigenous people to vocational education, as well as for the autonomy of Angola.However, “her vision of colonialism as a system that promoted the development of indigenous people was not very different from that of the feminist elites of her time” (Idem: 43). A decade later, she returned to Luanda in 1929 and withdrew from public life. Despite returning to Lisbon to accompany her niece Maria Piedade Lazary de Matos, after her death Domingas experienced some financial difficulties and died on June 4, 1954.


      1. Ferreira, E.M. (2015). Cidadania em Angola: A saga de Domingas Lazary do Amaral, Lisboa, Quod.
      2. Santo, S.E. (2019). Domingas Lazary do Amaral: ‘Uma querelada pela liberdade de imprensa’, Ex aequo 39, 39-53.

      Berlin Conference and partition of Africa by European colonial powers. Conference initially conceived by Portugal following the proposal of the pink map and the annexation of territories by the British between Angola and Mozambique.


      Portuguese emigration to Africa was around 2000 emigrants per year and rarely represented 6% of the total. In this migration to Africa and South America were Portuguese of African origins born in Portugal.
      The vast majority of emigrants – 59% of men and 87% of women were illiterate. They were looking for better living conditions and to save money to start a family; children of widows or foundlings, in desperate situations they managed to get a godfather to pay for their passage to Brazil; ruined farmers sought to escape proletarianization; poor boys, aspiring brides of superior status, ambitious men. The fascination of the prestige of the few Brazilians who returned rich, bought farms, built palaces, acquired commendations and distributed patacas to poor relatives, led the Portuguese to emigrate!
      Many blacks found themselves in a situation of semi-slavery in the first half of the century. They lived mainly in Lisbon, Porto and Setúbal, cities where they worked in domestic services. Their number decreased and they were replaced by Galician labor in some regions such as the Mokambo neighborhood in the city of Lisbon. They also served as street whitewashers in houses or as bullfighters in the arenas.


      On March 13, 1986, Gungunhana – the “King of Gaza” – who had been captured in Mozambique by Mouzinho de Albuquerque on December 28, 1895, arrived in Lisbon, accompanied by his family and fellow countrymen.Gungunhana was the object of immense curiosity on the part of the population and the media during his time in Lisbon, in Monsanto prison, until he traveled to the island of Terceira where he died in 1906. However, the “memory of Africans was perpetuated on Terceira through the descendants of Zixaxa”, one of the Mozambicans captured and held captive, who was later assimilated (Enes, 2018: 24).

      CRU000195 | Arrival of Gungunhana at the Navy Arsenal [Lisbon, 1896-03-13]

      In Enes, 2018


      1. Enes, C. (2018). Gungunhana nos Açores, Álbum Terceirense. Volume IV. 11-26. Angra do Heroísmo: Instituto Açoriano de Cultura.




      1. Domingues, M. (2023). A Liberdade não se concede, conquista-se. Que a conquistem os negros! Antologia de Textos da Batalha. Lisboa: Falas Afrikanas, Letra Livre e A Batalha.
      2. Domingues, M. (2018). Má Raça. Comédia em 3 Atos. Lisboa: Falas Afrikanas.
      3. Domingues, M. (1960). Menino entre Gigantes. Lisboa: Prelo.
      4. Domingues, M. (1929). O Preto do Charleston. Lisboa: Guimarães & Ca..
      5. GARCIA, J.L. (org.) (2022). A afirmação negra e a questão colonial. Textos, 1919-1928. Lisboa: Tinta da China.
      6. Garcia, J.L. (2017). The First Stirrings of Anti-Colonial Discourse in the Portuguese Press. In J. L. Garcia, J.L. et al. (eds.), Media and Portuguese Empire. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 125-143.
      7. Pereira, P. (2023). Mário Domingues, Ferreira de Castro e a “linha de cor” nas letras portuguesas, Revista Brasileira de História 43 (93), 105-129.
      8. Roldão, C; Pereira, J.A. & Varela, P. (2023). Tribuna Negra: Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal 1911-1933. Lisboa: Tinta da China. 

      According to historian Cláudia Castelo, “the available studies […] hardly address the period after the abolition of slavery, or do so insufficiently. African dynamics in nineteenth-century Portugal, when they do appear, are almost always reduced to those resulting from the migratory movement of decolonization, as if Africans and Afro-descendants had been absent from the European space, reemerging only after 1974/75 and especially in the 1980s and 1990s, a period of growth and diversification of African immigration in Portugal (2022: 132).

      In the wake of Castelo’s challenge, we can find a set of photographs in the Lisbon Photographic Archive that attest to this presence in the country’s capital at the turn of the 20th century.

      1902 | Birth of José Soares Santa “Camarão”

      1904 |First African Guild in Lisbon 

      1907 | The seller of used books Pires [Rua Santa Maria Maior, Lisbon, 1907]

      1907 | Canon of the Patriarchal See of Lisbon [Square, Santa Maria Maior, Lisbon, 1907]

      1907 | Children and watermen in the Chafariz d’ El Rei [Lisbon, 1907-03] 


      1. Arquivo Fotográfico de Lisboa.
      2. Castelo, C. (2022). Africans and Afrodescendants in the Portuguese metropole (twentieth century): a return to the “imperial archive”. Portuguese Literary and Cultural Studies 34-35 (2022): 131-150.
      3. Maçarico, L.F. (2003). Com o Mundo nos Punhos: Elementos para uma Biografia de José Santa Camarão. Lisboa: Câmara Municipal de Lisboa
      4. Roldão, C., Pereira, J. e Varela, P. (2023). Tribuna Negra: Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal 1911-1933. Lisboa: Tinta da China.

      1910.10.05 | Implantation of the Portuguese Republic

      1910 | Permanent Commission of the Sons of São Tomé and Príncipe

      1911 | Association of Black Students

      1911 | Launch of the newspaper O Negro

      1912 | Junta for the Defense of African Rights

      1912-1913 (and later 1927-1930) | A Voz de África newspaper

      1913 (and later 1931-1932) | Tribuna d’África Newspaper

      1914-15 | O Eco D’África newspaper

      1915 | Portugal Novo newspaper

      1916-1918 | Newspaper A Nova Patria

      1918 | Election of João De Castro – First Black Member of Parliament in Portugal

      João Monteiro de Castro was born in 1887 into a middle-class, socialist and pan-Africanist family from São Tomé, committed to defending the rights of “indigenous” people in the then colonial space. His brothers, Heliodoro and Arthur Monteiro de Castro, were members of the first associations of African students in Portugal, such as the Association of Black Students and the International Academic League of Blacks. After moving to Portugal, where he lived in Coimbra and Lisbon and even entered the University of Law in Coimbra, João de Castro took part in a number of pan-Africanist initiatives, such as the Junta de Defesa dos Direitosde África, the African National Party and the African Nationalist Movement; he was also editor and director of several important publications, such as Voz d’África, Tribuna d’África and África. And, in 1918, he was elected as the first Afro-descendant deputy in the Assembly of the Portuguese Republic, representing São Tomé and Príncipe, for the Socialist Party. He died in 1955.

      1919 | Foundation of the newspaper A Batalha


      1. Garvey, M. (5 de dezembro de 1995). The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, Vol. IX: Africa for the Africans June 1921-December 1922 (em inglês). [S.l.]: University of California Press
      2. Pereira, J.A. & Varela, P. (2020). As Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal (1911-1933): uma geração pan-africanista e antirracista, Revista História 179. [https://www.revistas.usp.br/revhistoria/article/view/159242]
      3. Roldão, C; Pereira, J.A. & Varela, P. (2023). Tribuna Negra: Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal 1911-1933. Lisboa: Tinta da China. 


      1920 – 1924 | African League

      1921 | Newspaper O Protesto Indígena

      1921 | Birth of Francisco José Tenreiro

      Francisco José Tenreiro was born and wrote under the consequences of the colonial yoke in São Tomé and Príncipe, in particular about the exploitation of labor under the contract regime that definitively marked the country’s history. However, the son of a Portuguese father and an Angolan mother, Francisco spent most of his life in Lisbon, where he earned a doctorate in geography, taught at what is now the ISCSP, founded the Center for African Studies at the University of Lisbon and served as a member of Parliament representing São Tomé and Príncipe. His works include the two volumes of poems, Ilha de nome santo (1942) and Coração em África (1964), as well as Panorâmica da literatura norte-americana (1945) and the anthology (with Mário Andrade), Poesia negra de expressão portuguesa (1958).

      1921-1923 and 1924 | Correio de África

      1923 | Pan-African Congress Lisbon

      1929 | League of African Women

      1929 | African Guild

      1929 | Ké-Aflicana


      1. Du Bois, W.E.B. (1924), “Pan Africa in Portugal”. The Crisis, vol. 27, n. 4, February, 170.
      2. Mata, I. (org.) (2010). Francisco José Tenreiro: As Múltiplas Faces de um Intelectual. Lisboa: Colibri.
      3. Roldão, C; Pereira, J.A. & Varela, P. (2023). Tribuna Negra: Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal 1911-1933. Lisboa: Tinta da China.

      1930-1932 | Jornal A Mocidade Africana

      1931 (and 1932-1933) | Africa Newspaper

      1931 (to 1933) |African Nationalist Movement Newspaper

      1932 | Africa Magazzine Newspaper

      1932 | Hoje Newspaper


      1. Roldão, C; Pereira, J.A. & Varela, P. (2023). Tribuna Negra: Origens do Movimento Negro em Portugal 1911-1933. Lisboa: Tinta da China. 
      1939 to 1945 – World War II

      Lisbon was the exit door of Europe at war. People of many nationalities such as British or Germans settled here and many Jews sought to obtain travel visas.


      1940 | Publication of the book Moors, Jews and Blacks in the History of Portugal, by J. A. Pires de Lima

      1940 | Publication of the paper presented at the National Congress of Population Sciences, “The Influence of the Moors, Jews and Blacks on Portuguese Ethnography”.

      1942 | Birth of Eusébio da Silva Ferreira (The Black Panther)

      Eusébio da Silva Ferreira, known as the ‘Black Panther’ or the ‘King’, is one of the most renowned players in the history of Portuguese soccer, having spent most of his career with Sport Lisboa e Benfica. Born in 1942, he was considered by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics to be one of the best footballers of all time. For all these reasons, his remains were transferred to the National Pantheon in 2015, making him the first black person to be honored there.

      1944 | Creation of the House of Students of the Empire (CEI)


      1. Castelo, C. (2010). A Casa dos Estudantes do Império: lugar de memória anticolonial. Trabalho apresentado no 7.º Congresso Ibérico de Estudos Africanos, Lisboa.
      2. Castelo, C. (1997). “Casa dos Estudantes do Império (1944-1965): uma síntese histórica”, Mensagem: número especial, 23-29.
      3. Castelo, C. & Jerónimo, M.B. (org.) (2017). Casa dos Estudantes do Império: Dinâmicas Coloniais, Conexões Transnacionais. Lisboa: Edições 70.
      4. Domingos, N. (2014). O lugar de Eusébio na “grande sociedade portuguesa”. In V. A. Melo et al. (eds.), Esporte, cultura, nação, Estado – Brasil e Portugal. Rio de Janeiro: 7 Letras, 156-171.
      5. Domingos, N. (2020). Eusébio, o lusotropicalismo e a globalização dos ídolos desportivos. In Fiolhais, C. et al. (coord.), História Global de Portugal. [S.l.]: Círculo de Leitores, 625-631.
      6. Malheiro, J. (2005). Eusébio – A Minha História. Lisboa: Quidnovi.

      1961 | Start of the War for the independence of the countries under Portuguese colonial rule (Huambo, Angola)

      1967 | Arlindo de Jesus Brito, First Black Carris Driver

      In April 1967, the newspaper Diário de Lisboa reported that Arlindo de Jesus Brito, born in Praia, Cape Verde, was the first black driver for the Carris company.

      1960 to 1970 – Wave of Portuguese emigration

      Wave of Portuguese emigration, motivated by the crisis in the agricultural sector, the inability of the economic sectors to absorb the rural population that abandoned the fields, political repression by the dictatorship and the escape from the colonial war. Coming of migrants or refugees from former African colonies.

      1974, April 25th | Carnation Revolution

      Carnation Revolution initiated by African leaders who wanted the independence of countries still under colonial rule. The very message/music at the beginning of the revolution in Portugal takes place in the area of the country with the greatest revolutionary spirit and the fight against labor or slave exploitation in the region with a strong African presence, which is the Sado Valley, and more specifically the city of Grandola, who is a brunette in the song due to her strong African ancestral presence. Peak in the next 10 years of African migrations in large numbers to Portugal.

      Alfredo Cunha, Revolution of April 25, 1974 [Lisbon, 1974-04-25]

      Alfredo Cunha, Revolution of April 25, 1974 [Lisbon, 1974-04-25]


      1. Arquivo Fotográfico de Lisboa.
      1975 | Refugees from colonial wars, economic migrations
      1977 | Start of Health Evacuation Protocols between Portugal and the PALOP

      In March 3, 1977 Health Evacuation Protocols with the PALOP countries started, first Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe and later, in 1984, with Mozambique and Angola and only in 1992, with Guinea-Bissau.


      1987.02.17 | Creation of AGUINENSO – Guinean Social Solidarity Association

      1988 | Publication of the book “Os Negros em Portugal: Um passado Silencioso”, by José Ramos Tinhorão. The book was reissued in 2019, reflecting the growing debate on the legacies of the African and black presence in the country.

      In 1998, José Ramos Tinhorão published Os Negros em Portugal: Uma Presença Silenciosa (Blacks in Portugal: A Silent Presence), a book that delves into the historical and political context of Portugal’s role in inaugurating transatlantic slavery and mapping the black presence in the country from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 16th century. Tinhorão’s work is therefore fundamental to understanding the extent and number of this presence in the most diverse latitudes of the country, looking both at the social life of enslaved people through work, territory, religiosity, politics and the performing arts, as well as the political strategy and narratives of the dominant white classes through the use of diplomacy, the enactment of legislation and the elaboration of literary, theatrical or linguistic narratives responsible for the ridicule, dehumanization and subordination of enslaved people. Importantly, throughout the book, the author names a number of black people who are relevant to the country’s history, showing how this lasting presence influenced language, the arts and culture in general, since from a certain point onwards black people were perfectly integrated into the social fabric of the city of Lisbon, cohabiting and relating to the white Portuguese lower class, in neighborhoods such as Alfama, Mouraria or Madragoa – and, as such, co-producing urban life with them.

      1989 | Start of the first known female RAP group in Portugal – Djamal. The following year another group was created – Divine.


      1. Martins, B.S. (2019). Os Negros em Portugal, Buala, 26 de maio. https://www.buala.org/pt/a-ler/os-negros-em-portugal.
      2. Simões, S. (2018). Fixar o (in)visível: papéis e repertórios de luta dos dois primeiros grupos de Rap femininos a gravar em Portugal, Cadernos de Arte e Antropologia 7 (1), 97-114.
      3. Simões, S. (2017). 1990-1997, percursos da invisibilidade. As mulheres no RAP: afirmação e resistência, Le Monde Diplomatique – Edição Portuguesa, setembro [https://www.muralsonoro.com/mural-sonoro-pt/2017/11/12/raprodues-de-memria-1990-1997-percursos-da-invisibilidade]
      4. Tinhorão, J.R. (1988). Os Negros em Portugal – Uma presença silenciosa. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho.

        1990 | Foundation of the SOS Racism Movement

        1991 – 1995 | Fernando Gomes Ka was a Socialist Party MP in the 6th Legislature

        1992 | José Mussuaili becomes the first black anchor to present a news program on Portuguese television, on the TVI channel

        1993. 05.07 | The Special Rehousing Program (PER) is enacted

        1993 | Launch of the book Lisboa Africana

        1994 | Sara Tavares wins Chuva de Estrelas

        1996 | Creation of the Association Batoto Yetu Portugal 

        1996 | Process of extraordinary regularization of immigrants

        1996 | Rapper Djoek releases Nada Mí N’Caten, the first album sung in Cape Verdean Creole in Portugal

        1997 | Publication of the book Origins of African Nationalism: Continuity and rupture in the unitary movements emerging from the struggle against Portuguese colonial domination 1911-1961.

        1998 | The remains of the “Child of Lapedo” were found in the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, in Vale do Lapedo (Leiria), from the Gravetense period, in the Upper Palaeolithic, 24,500 years ago, with characteristics of Neanderthals and modern humans.

        1999 | Creation of the Anti-Racist Network


        1. Agualusa, J., Rocha, E. & Semedo, F. (1993). Lisboa Africana. Porto: Edições ASA.
        2. Almeida, F. et al. (2007). The Lapedo Child Reborn: Contributions of CT Scanning and Rapid Prototyping for an Upper Palaeolithic Infant Burial and Face Reconstruction. The Case of Lagar Velho Interpretation Centre, Leiria, Portugal. In D. ARNOLD; F. NICCOLUCCI; A. CHALMERS (eds.), The 8th International Symposium on Virtual reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage VAST, 69-73”.
        3. Andrade, M. P. (1997). Origens do Nacionalismo Africano: Continuidade e Ruptura nos Movimentos Unitários Emergentes da Luta contra a Dominação Colonial Portuguesa 1911-1961. Lisboa: Dom Quixote.
        4. Ciência com Impacto (2021). Podcast T3E7: João Zilhão – O Neandertal Dentro de Nós. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HC-wTxXlDEk] 
        5. Duarte, C. et al. (1999). The early Upper Palaeolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia, PNAS USA 96, 7604–7609.
        6. Grossegesse, O. & Thorau, H.  (orgs.) (2009). À Procura da Lisboa Africana: Da Encenação do Império Ultramarino às Realidades Suburbanas. Braga: Universidade do Minho. Centro de Estudos Humanísticos.
        7. Patrocínio, F. (2023). Há 29.000 anos… era uma vez a criança do Lapedo, National Geographic, 7 de dezembro. [https://www.nationalgeographic.pt/historia/crianca-lapedo-leiria-arqueologia-gravetense_4450
        8. Fernandes, M.J. (2001). O menino de Lapedo, RTP Ensina, RTP. [https://ensina.rtp.pt/artigo/o-menino-de-lapedo/
        9. Município de Leiria (2021), “Contigo a história é outra: Centro de Interpretação Abrigo do Lagar Velho” [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oaZqq5souA8].
        10. RTP (2001). “O Menino do Lapedo”, [https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=2016301185112413]
        11. ZILHÃO, J. (2005). “A criança do Lapedo e as origens do homem moderno na Península Ibérica, Promontoria 3 (3): 135-172.
        12. Zilhão, J. e Trinkaus, E. (eds.) (2002). Portrait of the Artist as a Child: The Gravettian Human Skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho and its Archeological Context. Lisboa: Instituto Português de Arqueologia.

        2005 | Yves-Jean Loude publishes Lisboa na Cidade Negra.

        2007 | Lisbon Europe-Africa Summit

        2008 | Portuguese intellectual and artist based in the Netherlands, Grada Kilomba, publishes the book Memórias da Plantação. It would take more than a decade for the book to be translated into Portuguese by Orfeu Negro.

        2009 | Discovery of a cemetery of enslaved people in Vale da Grafaria, Lagos


        1. Cardoso, H.F.V., et al. (2018). The Impact of Social Experiences of Physical and Structural Violence on the Growth of African Enslaved Children Recovered from Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th centuries), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 168 (1), 209–221.
        2. Coelho, C. (2012). Uma identidade perdida no mar e reencontrada nos ossos: avaliação das afinidades populacionais de uma amostra de escravos dos séculos XV–XVI. 2012. Dissertação de Mestrado em Evolução e Biologia Humana, Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal.
        3. Coelho, C. et al. (2017). Ancestry Estimation Based on Morphoscopic Traits in a Sample of African Slaves from Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th Centuries), International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 27 (2), 320–326.
        4. Costa, A.F. (2013). Os Infantes de Lagos: um estudo de crescimento numa amostra de não-adultos do Poço dos Negros (séculos XV-XVII). Dissertação de Mestrado em Evolução e Biologia Humanas, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal.
        5. Ferreira, M. T. et al. (2019b). Evidences of Trauma in Adult African Enslaved Individuals from Valle da Gafaria, Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th Centuries), Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 65, 68–75.
        6. Ferreira, M.T. et al.  (2019a). Discarded in the Trash: Burials of African Enslaved Individuals in Valle da Gafaria, Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th Centuries), International Journal Osteoarchaeology 29 (4), 670–680.
        7. Ferreira, M. T. et al. (2013). Lagos leprosarium (Portugal): Evidences of Disease, Journal of Archaeological Science 40 (5), 2298–2307. 
        8. Furtado, M. (2012). A diagnose sexual de escravos africanos: estimativa sexual a partir de os coxae da colecção osteológica negróide de PAVd’09 (Valle da Gafaria, Lagos). Mestrado em Evolução Humana e Biologia, Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal.
        9. Kilomba, G. (2019). Memórias da Plantação. Lisboa: Orfeu Negro. [https://www.ufrb.edu.br/ppgcom/images/MEMORIAS_DA_PLANTACAO_-_EPISODIOS_DE_RAC_1_GRADA.pdf ] 
        10. Loude, J. (2005). Lisboa, na Cidade Negra. Lisboa: Publicações Dom Quixote.
        11. Neves, M.J. (2015). O Caso do “Poço dos Negros” (Lagos): Da Urgência do Betão ao Conhecimento das Práticas Esclavagistas no Portugal Moderno a partir de uma Escavação de Arqueologia Preventiva, Antrope, 142-160. 
        12. Neves, M.J. et al. (2011). História de um Arrabalde durate os séculos XV e XVI: o “Poço dos Negros” em Lagos (Portugal) e o seu contributo para o estudo dos escravos africanos em Portugal, A Herança do Infante: História, Arqueologia e Museologia em Lagos, 29-46. 
        13. Neves, M.J. et al. (2010). Separados na vida e na morte: retrato do tratamento mortuário dado aos escravos africanos na cidade moderna de Lagos, XELB 10. Silves: Câmara Municipal de Silves, 547-560. 
        14. Pinto, A.E. (2023). Esquecimento e Restos Humanos: O Caso do Vale da Gafaria. Dissertação de Mestrado em Património Cultural e Museologia apresentada à Faculdade de Letras. Lisboa, Portugal. 
        15. Rodrigues, C.A. (2018). Estimativa da idade através do racio área polpar/área do dente numa amostra de esqueletos de escravos Africanos (Lagos, Portugal). Dissertação de Mestrado em Evolução e Biologia Humanas, Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal. 
        16. Rufino, A.I. et al. (2017). Periapical lesions in intentionally modified teeth in a skeletal sample of enslaved Africans (Lagos, Portugal), International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 27: 288–297.
        17. Wasterlain, S. et al. (2018). Growth Faltering in a Skeletal Sample of Enslaved Non-adult Africans Found at Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th Centuries), International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 28 (2), 162–169.
        18. Wasterlain, S. et al. (2016). Dental Modifications in a Skeletal Sample of Enslaved Africans Found at Lagos (Portugal), International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 26 (4): 621–632.

        2014 | Creation of Radio AFROLIS

        2015 | Writer Djamila Pereira de Almeida launches her first book, Esse Cabelo, a novel essay that tells, recognizes and reflects on the construction of black women’s identity in Portugal and its relationship with colonial geopolitics.This book was followed by Lisboa, Luanda Paraíso, A Visão das Plantas and Três Histórias de Esquecimento.

        2015 | Francisca Van-Dunen becomes the first black woman to be Minister of Justice in Portugal’s XXII Constitutional Government

        2016.03.21 | Foundation of FEMAFRO – Association of Black, African and Afro-descendant Women in Portugal

        2016.05.25 | Creation of DJASS – Afro-descendant Association

        2016.12.08 | Publication of an Open Letter from Portuguese Afro-descendant Organizations addressed to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.

        2017 | DJASS – Associação de Afrodescendentes proposes and wins a project that includes the construction of a Memorial in Honor of Enslaved People, within the scope of the Participatory Budget of the city of Lisbon. After a participatory process, the winning project is by artist Kiluanji Kia Henda.

        2017 | Telma Tvon launches the book Um preto muito português.

        2017.04 | Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa visits the “House of Slaves” on Gorée Island, Senegal – a key landmark in the trafficking of enslaved people under Portuguese rule between the 16th and 19th centuries. While acknowledging the violence inherent in the transatlantic slave trade, the then President of the Portuguese Republic did not apologize for the Portuguese role in the process, instead stressing the country’s supposed pioneering role in the abolition of slavery, referring to 1761, when the country merely abolished the trafficking of enslaved people to the then metropolis, in order to channel manpower to Brazil. The trade was only officially abolished in 1869.

        2018.06.22 | A hundred black intellectuals and activists publish the letter “No to a museum against us”, in opposition to the proposal by the then mayor of Lisbon, Fernando Medina, to build a “Museum of the Discoveries”.

        2018 | Poet Gisela Casimiro launches Erosão, her first book of poetry, to be followed by Giz (2023) and Estendais (2023).

        2018.07.14 | Discovery of a 400,000-year-old skull in the Aroeira cave, in the Almonda archaeological complex (Torres Novas) – the oldest fossil discovered in Portugal so far, from the Middle Pleistocene period (between 700,000 and 125,000 years before the present).

        2018 | Creation of the Institute of Black Women in Portugal (IMUNE)

        2019.08 | Creation of the Afrolink Project [https://afrolink.pt/sobre/]

        2019 | Election of three black women as members of the Portuguese Parliament: Beatriz Gomes Dias (Left Bloc), Joacine Katar Moreira (Livre) and Romualda Fernandes (Socialist Party)

        2019.07.04-09| Portugal hosts the Black Invisibilities Contested: 7th Bienal Afroeuropeans Network Conference, at ISCTE – IUL, in Lisbon.

        2019 | Beggining of the Radio Show Invisible City – Antena 1 [https://www.rtp.pt/play/p6377/e438280/cidade-invisivel]

        2019 | Creation of the Podcast “The Dark Side of the Force”[https://www.facebook.com/oladonegrodaforca2019/videos]

        2019 | Exhibition “Towards a history of the Black Movement in Portugal. 1911-1933”, by Cristina Roldão, José Augusto Pereira and Pedro Varela, School of Education of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal (ESE-IPS)


        1. Almeida, D.P. (2021). Três Histórias de Esquecimento. Lisboa: Relógio d’Água. 
        2. Almeida, D.P. (2019). A Visão das Plantas. Lisboa: Relógio d’ Água.
        3. Almeida, D.P. (2018). Luanda, Lisboa, Paraíso. Lisboa: Companhia das Letras.
        4. Almeida, D.P. (2015). Esse Cabelo. Lisboa: Relógio d’Água.
        5. Afrolis et al. (2016). Carta aberta de organizações afrodescendentes portuguesas ao CERD, Museu Afrodigital: Estação Portugal, 8 dezembro [https://museudigitalafroportugues.wordpress.com/2016/12/08/carta-aberta-de-organizacoes-afrodescendentes-portuguesas-ao-cerd-2016/].
        6. Amado, A. D (2018), “Não a um Museu contra Nós”, Público, 22 de junho.
        7. Casimiro, G. (2023). Estendais. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho.
        8. Casimiro, G. (2023). Giz. São Paulo: Editora Urutau.
        9. Casimiro, G. (2018). Erosão. São Paulo: Editora Urutau.
        10. Dias, B. (2018). Por um memorial de homenagem às pessoas escravizadas, Ipsilón – Público, 16 de maio. 
        11. Daura, J., et al. (2017). A 400,000-year-old Acheulean assemblage associated with the Aroeira-3 human cranium (Gruta da Aroeira, Almonda karst system, Portugal). [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2018.03.003]
        12. Henriques, J.G. e Santos, N.F. (2020). Nasceu Afrolink, o site que dá rosto à diversidade de profissionais negros em Portugal, Público, 16 de agosto.
        13. Henriques, J.G. (2019). Fez-se história: Parlamento terá três deputadas negras, Público, 7 de outubro.
          1. [https://www.publico.pt/2019/10/07/politica/noticia/eleicoes-historicas-elegem-tres-deputadas-negras-1889146].
          2. Henriques, J.G. (2019). Centenas debatem racismo e o que é ser negro na Europa “nos seus próprios termos”, Público, 3 de julho.[https://www.publico.pt/2019/07/03/sociedade/noticia/centenas-debatem-racismo-negro-europa-proprios-termos-lisboa-1878620.
          3. Lovegrove, S. & Machaqueiro, R.R. (2024). Contesting monuments, challenging narratives: Divergent approaches to dealing with the colonial past and its legacies in Lisbon, Portugal, Journal of Historical Geography 83, 84-95.
            1. Peralta, E. e Domingos, N. (2019). Lisbon: Reading the (Post-)Colonial City from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century, Urban History 46 (2), 246-265.
            2. Tvon, T. (2017). Um preto muito português. Lisboa: Chiado Books.
            3. RTP ÁFRICA (2016). Entrevista a Beatriz Dias [Djass – Associação de Afrodescendentes], Bem-Vindos, 13 de junho [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R83VEwVwhOI].

            2020.10 | Lisbon City Council inaugurates a plaque on Rua Garret in honor of Alcindo Monteiro, brutally murdered by neo-Nazis on June 10, 1995

            2020.10.19 | Opening of the exhibition “Territories of Memory: The Lisbon Metropolitan Area through the eyes of Africans and Afro-descendants”, which is the result of a series of dialogues narrating the memories of men and women who migrated to Portugal at the beginning of the 20th century.

            2020.12.10 | Premiere of the “We’re here to stay” Podcast (SOS Racism) [https://www.sosracismo.pt/geral/viemos-para-ficar-podcast-anti-racista]

            2021| Reissue of the newspaper O Negro, by the publisher Falas Afrikanas

            2022 | The Annual Internal Security Report (RASI) criminalizes Drill (a sub-genre of trap, within rap) which, like what happened in the 1990s, is a way of criminalizing the thoughts, words and existence of black youth in Portugal, associating these young people with the rise of group crime. On the contrary, Dril should be read as a diagnosis and a reflection by these young people on their lives.

            2024.01.13 | Inauguration of a statue and 20 toponymic plaques evoking the African presence in the city of Lisbon, promoted by the Batoto Yetu Portugal Cultural and Youth Association under the BIP/ZIP Program.


            1. ALVES, A.R. e AMORIM, S. (2019). “Territórios da Memória: A Área Metropolitana de Lisboa pelo Olhar de Africanos e Afrodescendentes”, Afrodescendência em Portugal: sociabilidades, representações e dinâmicas sociopolíticas e culturais. Um estudo na Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, Centro Cultural de Cabo Verde [https://www.rtp.pt/play/p6591/e510182/bem-vindos].
            2. Gabmorrisson (2022) Cova da Moura: la dernière favela d’Europe (avec Nico OG). [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHaGyyzdVzE
            3. Gabmorrisson (2022). Visite du quartier Reboleira avec Kats XRootz (Portugal). [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6EzgWHMaEJA].
            4. Gabmorrisson (2022). Sucupira: le quartier abandonné du Portugal (avec Leo2745). [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4ro2uHXAjM]
            5. Gabmorrisson (2022). Immersion à Amadora au Portugal avec PDB & RDB (Casal da Boba). [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kXk8l0wZDoU] 
            6. Gabmorrisson (2022). Quinta do Mocho: Quartier chaud du Portugal (avec RDM). [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQhYQrEk9Ww]
            7. Gabmorrisson (2022). Reportage: Les quartiers de Porto (avec TZ35 & Xaxxa). [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6mG-JKCixtE]
            8. Rádio TV Cidade (2021). XROOTZ fala sobre PREGO PREGO, críticas, uso di máskara, drill e más, dezembro [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ThC8Ukn9ug&t=654s]