DAM – DIGITAL AFRICAN MEMORY PORTUGAL

C
Middle Ages
LATE 11TH CENTURY AND MID 12TH CENTURY
Almoravids and Almohad peoples Amazigh, (Berbers), Fulani and other North African converts to Islam, join the Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula to repel the Christian advance.
800
900
1000
1100
1147 | D. Afonso Henriques conquers Al-Ushbuna
Al-Ushbuna has a population of around 12,000. On October 25, 1147, King D. Afonso Henriques conquered the city from the Moors. As allies it has crusaders, coming from the north of Europe.
1170 | Charter to the freed Moors of Lisbon, by D. Afonso Henriques
1200
1300
1348 - Black Death

Black Death, introduced by sea and land, affected all the provinces of the kingdom, causing countless victims. It is assumed that between 1/3 to ½ of the population perished. In the following years, the pestilences were repeated, although with less impact. The sudden decrease in the number of inhabitants caused by disease, famine and war (and earthquakes) translated into problems of labor shortages, especially in urban centers. Artisans were sought out, which resulted in an increase in wages and the rural worker fleeing to the city, where they were paid better.

1391 | The anti-Jewish movement in Spain

The anti-Jewish movement in Spain led to the growth of the Jewish community in Portugal, many were considered black Jews. Hundreds of Jews emigrated from Spain to Portugal. They settled first in the cities closest to their entrance (on the coast for those who traveled by sea and those in the interior of the border for those who arrived by land) and gradually expanded their area of occupation.

1400
1415 | Beginning of Portuguese maritime expansion and wars of conquest

It began with the conquest of Ceuta from the Arab colonizing elite coming from the Arabian peninsula and the African peoples of Morocco already colonized by Islam.

1441 | Antão Gonçalves brings the first enslaved African peoples to Portugal

According to historian Vitorino Magalhães Godinho, the first 10 to 13 Azeneg “captives” arrived in Portugal in 1441, “taken prisoner” on the Sahara coast, kidnapped by Antão Gonçalves and Nuno Tristão, in an ambush at a camp in Porto de Cavaleiro (Rio do Ouro), from whom the first informations about the Saharan histerland would be obtained, making it easier to kidnap more 29 persons  on the following trip, in 1443. Godinho also mentions that, according to cronist Eanes Gomes Zurara, Tristão “was driven by the desire to take captives in such numbers that the infante would begin to profit from the expenses incurred on the voyages” (1983: 155).

References

GODINHO, V.M. (1983). Os Descobrimentos e a Economia Mundial, Volume IV. Lisboa: Editorial Presença.

1444 | ARRIVAL IN LAGOS OF THE FIRST LARGE GROUP OF ENSLAVED BLACK PEOPLE

The first raids on the African coast that resulted in the imprisonment of African and black people began in the 1440s that, according to the chronicler Gomes Eanes Zurara, brought to Lagos, on the Algarve coast, the first contingent of 235 African women, children and men kidnapped and imprisoned off the coast of Mauritania, on August 8, 1444, witnessed by the curiosity of many people who gathered there (Henriques & Silva, 2020:61). It is this event that largely marks the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade. In fact, it is estimated that between the mid-1400s and 1761, around 400,000 men, women and children were brought to Portugal (Lahon, 2004). In fact, between the 16th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that Portugal and Brazil (independent since 1822) were responsible for half of the 12M estimated enslaved people across the atlantic.

References

CASTRO HENRIQUES, I. e DA SILVA, J.M. (2020). Os “Pretos do Sado”: História e memória de uma comunidade alentejana de origem Africana (Séculos XV-XX). Lisboa: Edições Colibri.

LAHON, D. (2004). “O escravo africano na vida económica e social portuguesa do Antigo Regime”, Africana Studia 7, pp. 73-100.

1444 | PAPAL BULL "DUM DIVERSAS"

On June 18, 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the Bull “Dum Diversas” which granted the Portuguese crown the right to capture territories and reduce the non-Christian populations of West Africa to the condition of “perpetual slaves”.