CONAKRY is a 2016 film by Filipa César, Grada Kilomba and Diana McCarty. Synopsis: Staged at the Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, CONAKRY is a sequence shot on 16mm film that travels through time, space and media to revisit one film reel from the Guinean archive...
Miraflor | TWA
TWA (Primero G e Lord G)
Another Lisbon Story is a 2017 film by Claudio Carbone. Synopsis: A selfproduced neighborhood in Lisbon, the residents are an active part of the decisions of the place where they live and a research team follows the process of inclusion in society. The absence of a...
I am not Pilatus (2019) is film by Welket Bungué Synopsis: #EuNãoSouPilatus is an artistic manifesto with poetic license by Welket Bungué. This film revisits the case of police violence that took place in Bairro da Jamaica (Margem Sul, Lisbon) in January 2019, and...
Arriaga is a 2019 film by Welket Bungué. Synopsis: "On the shores of Lisbon, Arriaga, a 25 years old boy from a middle-class family of emigrants walks alone through the silent and wrinkled streets by vices of the nightlife. Arriaga deals with his self-destructive...
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3000 B.C. – C. 1800 B.C. | CHALCOLITHIC
Network of beaker villages: small settlement units, with family roots. Need to visualize the space from a great distance (control) and some type of fortification.
2000 B.C. UNTIL C. 800 B.C. | BRONZE AGE
Centralization of ancient settlements: emergence of centers of political-economic power, in height, dominant over the landscape and over other settlement nuclei. Indigenous elites who will be the interlocutors with the Phoenicians African people from North Africa (probably arrived in the 9th century BC, judging by the dates in Almaraz).
1070 B.C. | TALINKA IS ELEVED
Bratrikus entered the south of the Iberian peninsula and built his capital in Talikha, close to present-day Seville.
878 B.C. | Phoenicians
750 B.C. At 138 B.C. | OLISIPO
The settlement, later known as Olisipo (-ipo means «place on a height», in the Turdula language of the south of the peninsula), appears on the Castelo hill and next to the riverfront.
700 to 646 B.C. | PRESENCE OF PHARAOH TAHARKA IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
Presence in the Iberian Peninsula of the general Kemetian (ancient Egypt) Taharka (tarraca in Latin) later becomes pharaoh by resignation of his uncle. Last Nubian king who ruled Egypt. Taharqa, was the son of Piye and took the throne in 690 BC, after the death of his uncle Shabaka. He distinguished himself as a warrior and military leader even before he became pharaoh. Current presence of the protective Egyptian eye on the fishing boats of Costa da Caparica, and of the scarab-shaped amulets found in archaeological excavations in the Sado valley and elsewhere in Iberia.
218 B.C. UNTIL 201 B.C. | PUNISH WARS
II Punic Wars. Punic Wars – War of Rome against the African peoples of North Africa – Carthaginians. Presence in Iberia of Hannibal, the African who asked the local people for help to fight against Rome with his armored elephants.
409 | BARBARIAN INVASION
Invasion of the Roman Empire by the so-called barbarians. Vandals, Alans and Suebi head to the Iberian Peninsula.
468 | VISIGODS
The last Roman governor of the city of Olisipo, Lusidius, transfers power to the Swabian king. The city will have passed to the government of the Visigoths, shortly afterwards.
476 | END OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
End of the Western Roman Empire.
711 | BEGINNING OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA.
More Africanized dynasties were those of the Almoravids (1086) and Almohads (1145), in the middle between the two, as well as before and after them, there were independent and fractioned kingdoms, the «taifas», until the last days of al-Muslim kingdoms -Andalus in 1492;
Both during and outside the «more Africanized» governments, the Arabs (mainly Yemenis, Egyptians, Syrians) were in the majority, from a numerical point of view, compared to the Amazigh (Berbers) themselves; but there is already a presence of Berbers in the Peninsula (namely in the west) even before there was al-Andalus (before 711);
This was not an invasion (or an occupation), nor exactly an invitation, but a relatively non-belligerent conquest, sometimes favored by the elites, who in some cases were left with a certain amount of local power. That’s why it was quick, taking into account that the Visigoths were in a major crisis (economic, cultural, etc.) and the Muslims were in the dawn of the apogee of their civilization (soon they took with them knowledge, new institutions, greater possibilities of wealth, etc. ); moreover, the very Islamic institution of the dhimmah (pact of protection and coexistence), allowed peaceful coexistence between Jews, Christians and Muslims, facilitated the spread of Islamic power, migration continued over decades.
714 | MUSLIM CONQUEST OF OLISIPONA
Muslim conquest of Olisipona. The city gains a new name, Al – Ushbuna.
LATE 11TH CENTURY AND MID 12TH CENTURY
1147 | D. Afonso Henriques conquers Al-Ushbuna
1170 | Charter to the freed Moors of Lisbon, by D. Afonso Henriques
1348 - Black Death
Black Death, introduced by sea and land, affected all the provinces of the kingdom, causing countless victims. It is assumed that between 1/3 to ½ of the population perished. In the following years, the pestilences were repeated, although with less impact. The sudden decrease in the number of inhabitants caused by disease, famine and war (and earthquakes) translated into problems of labor shortages, especially in urban centers. Artisans were sought out, which resulted in an increase in wages and the rural worker fleeing to the city, where they were paid better.
1391 | The anti-Jewish movement in Spain
The anti-Jewish movement in Spain led to the growth of the Jewish community in Portugal, many were considered black Jews. Hundreds of Jews emigrated from Spain to Portugal. They settled first in the cities closest to their entrance (on the coast for those who traveled by sea and those in the interior of the border for those who arrived by land) and gradually expanded their area of occupation.
1415 | Beginning of Portuguese maritime expansion and wars of conquest
It began with the conquest of Ceuta from the Arab colonizing elite coming from the Arabian peninsula and the African peoples of Morocco already colonized by Islam.
1441 | Antão Gonçalves brings the first enslaved African peoples to Portugal
According to historian Vitorino Magalhães Godinho, the first 10 to 13 Azeneg “captives” arrived in Portugal in 1441, “taken prisoner” on the Sahara coast, kidnapped by Antão Gonçalves and Nuno Tristão, in an ambush at a camp in Porto de Cavaleiro (Rio do Ouro), from whom the first informations about the Saharan histerland would be obtained, making it easier to kidnap more 29 persons on the following trip, in 1443. Godinho also mentions that, according to cronist Eanes Gomes Zurara, Tristão “was driven by the desire to take captives in such numbers that the infante would begin to profit from the expenses incurred on the voyages” (1983: 155).
GODINHO, V.M. (1983). Os Descobrimentos e a Economia Mundial, Volume IV. Lisboa: Editorial Presença.
1444 | ARRIVAL IN LAGOS OF THE FIRST LARGE GROUP OF ENSLAVED BLACK PEOPLE
The first raids on the African coast that resulted in the imprisonment of African and black people began in the 1440s that, according to the chronicler Gomes Eanes Zurara, brought to Lagos, on the Algarve coast, the first contingent of 235 African women, children and men kidnapped and imprisoned off the coast of Mauritania, on August 8, 1444, witnessed by the curiosity of many people who gathered there (Henriques & Silva, 2020:61). It is this event that largely marks the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade. In fact, it is estimated that between the mid-1400s and 1761, around 400,000 men, women and children were brought to Portugal (Lahon, 2004). In fact, between the 16th and 19th centuries, it is estimated that Portugal and Brazil (independent since 1822) were responsible for half of the 12M estimated enslaved people across the atlantic.
CASTRO HENRIQUES, I. e DA SILVA, J.M. (2020). Os “Pretos do Sado”: História e memória de uma comunidade alentejana de origem Africana (Séculos XV-XX). Lisboa: Edições Colibri.
LAHON, D. (2004). “O escravo africano na vida económica e social portuguesa do Antigo Regime”, Africana Studia 7, pp. 73-100.
1444 | PAPAL BULL "DUM DIVERSAS"
On June 18, 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the Bull “Dum Diversas” which granted the Portuguese crown the right to capture territories and reduce the non-Christian populations of West Africa to the condition of “perpetual slaves”.
1492 | ALHAMBRA DECREE
Entry into Portugal of Castilian Jews in large numbers. After the Alhambra decree, after the conquest of Granada from the last Caliph of Granada named Boabdil.
After this period, the number of people enslaved from the kingdoms of Senegambia, Congo, Benin, among other peoples of the African continent. Since this forced presence (until the end of the 18th century) or later “by force” (from colonialism from the end of the 19th century to 1974, and the globalization and migrations of our days), several African peoples have settled in the city of Lisbon.
1496 | EDICT OF EXPULSION OF JEWS AND MOORS FROM THE KINGDOM, BY D. MANUEL I
Edict of expulsion of Jews and Moors from the kingdom, by D. Manuel I. In Lisbon, the Moors with about 5 ha, must not have exceeded 500 souls in the 15th century. The number of Moors throughout the century decreased: some affected by disease and the plague, others emigrated to North Africa and Granada, or even through miscegenation, when they joined Christian society.
Unlike the Moorish communities, the Jewish ones increased both in number and in economic power. Maria José Ferro Tavares estimated the Jewish population at around 30,000 inhabitants. The miscegenation rate was very low – rejection came from the Jewish community itself and from the penalties for those who dared to maintain relations between elements of the Christian and Jewish communities. In Lisbon, there were three Jewish quarters and a housing nucleus (extinct in 1317, in Pedreira): Old or Great Jewry, New or Tercenas Jewry and Alfama Jewry.
1500 TO 1475 | HUNDREDS OR EVEN THOUSANDS OF FAMILIES MIGRATE TO MADEIRA OR THE AZORES
Hundreds or even thousands of families migrated to Madeira or the Azores, and in the following years they also migrated to other places beyond the sea, leaving records of the presence of black Portuguese in all these places. United States, Hawaii among others.
1536 TO 1821 | AFRICAN CULTURAL PRACTICES WERE IN THIS PERIOD QUITE PERSECUTED
African cultural practices were in this period quite persecuted and demonized, with the burning of people in the main places of judgment in the villages.
1701 TO 1800 - REPORTS FROM FOREIGNERS DESCRIBE THE VARIOUS SOCIAL GROUPS
In the reports of foreigners who visited Portugal, the various social groups are described in a generic way. Those of African origin drew attention. They circulated in the streets carrying to the river the waste and dirt produced in the houses, without toilets, or performing other discrediting tasks. As a result of miscegenation between white and black popular classes from Africa or Brazil, mixed-race people also stand out. Enslaved people or freedmen shared the day-to-day life of the white population. Blacks were also accused of witchcraft or sorcery by the Inquisition or served sentences in the galleys by
order of the civil courts.
1755, NOVEMBER 1ST | GREAT EARTHQUAKE
Lisbon had a population of around 250,000 inhabitants. The Moorish population of Lisbon migrates to the west of Portugal, calling itself the saloia region and taking their knowledge and experience in the business and in the production of animals and work in agriculture. His clothes maintained distinctive features that often included a waistcoat and cap. The Moors on the outskirts of Lisbon were formerly called Caloyos or Saloios, a name taken from the name of the prayer performed five times a day, which was called “cala”.
The Contemporary Age is understood as the period between the French Revolution (1789-1799) and the present day.
However, it is important to emphasize that this Eurocentric chronology of history silences the Revolution of Santo Domingo (Haiti), where, between 1791 and 1803, the black Jacobins rose victoriously against slavery and the colonialism of the French Empire, consolidating themselves as the First Black Republic.
1821, FEBRUARY 16 | A BILL WAS INTRODUCED AUTHORIZING JEWS
In 16th February 1821, a bill was introduced authorizing Jews (sometimes called Black Jews) and Moors to return to Portugal, with all the privileges and rights that medieval legislation had once guaranteed them. Portugal thus reopened itself to the return of the Jewish community. Return already started at the end of the 18th century. Coming from Gibraltar, Morocco and other regions, some families established residence on the Portuguese mainland and on the Islands. Several commercial firms started activity. Until 1851, hundreds of individuals justified the existence of their own synagogues and cemeteries.
1869 | ABOLITION OF SLAVERY: A LONG ROAD
September 19, 1761 | Prohibition of the Introduction of New Enslaved Persons into the Metropolis
May 25, 1773 | Free Womb Law
December 10, 1836 | Prohibition of the Trafficking of Enslaved Persons in all Domains of the Portuguese Empire
February 27, 1869 | Abolition of Slavery in all Domains of the Portuguese Empire.
ALEXANDRE, V. (1991). Portugal e a abolição do tráfico de escravos (1834-51), Análise Social XXVI (111), p. 293-333.
LAHON, D. (1999). O Negro no Coração do Império. Uma memória a resgatar – Séculos XV a XIX. Lisboa: Ministério da Educação. Secretariado Coordenador dos Programas de Educação Multicultural.
MARQUES, J.P. (2004). Portugal e o fim da escravidão: uma reforma em contraciclo, Africana Studia 7, pp. 137-161.
MARQUES, J.P. (2001). Uma cosmética demorada: as cortes perante o problema da escravidão (1836-1875), Análise Social XXXVI (158-159), pp. 209-247.
MARQUES, J.P. (1999). Os sons do silêncio: o Portugal de Oitocentos e a abolição do tráfico de escravos. Lisboa: Instituto de Ciências Sociais.
MENDES, A. A. (2016). “Escravidão e raça em Portugal: uma experiência de longa duração”. In Myriam Cottias et Hebe Mattos (dir.), ESCRAVIDÃO E SUBJETIVIDADES no Atlântico luso-brasileiro e francês (Séculos XVII-XX) Marselha: OpenEdition Press.
MINISTÉRIO DA MARINHA (1889). Memória acerca da Extinção da Escravidão e do tráfico de escravatura no território português. Lisboa: Ministério da Marinha.
1884 | BERLIN CONFERENCE
Berlin Conference and partition of Africa by European colonial powers. Conference initially conceived by Portugal following the proposal of the pink map and the annexation of territories by the British between Angola and Mozambique.
1890 TO 1914 – PORTUGUESE EMIGRATION TO AFRICA
Portuguese emigration to Africa was around 2000 emigrants per year and rarely represented 6% of the total. In this migration to Africa and South America were Portuguese of African origins born in Portugal.
The vast majority of emigrants – 59% of men and 87% of women were illiterate. They were looking for better living conditions and to save money to start a family; children of widows or foundlings, in desperate situations they managed to get a godfather to pay for their passage to Brazil; ruined farmers sought to escape proletarianization; poor boys, aspiring brides of superior status, ambitious men. The fascination of the prestige of the few Brazilians who returned rich, bought farms, built palaces, acquired commendations and distributed patacas to poor relatives, led the Portuguese to emigrate!
Many blacks found themselves in a situation of semi-slavery in the first half of the century. They lived mainly in Lisbon, Porto and Setúbal, cities where they worked in domestic services. Their number decreased and they were replaced by Galician labor in some regions such as the Mokambo neighborhood in the city of Lisbon. They also served as street whitewashers in houses or as bullfighters in the arenas.
1939 to 1945 – World War II
Lisbon was the exit door of Europe at war. People of many nationalities such as British or Germans settled here and many Jews sought to obtain travel visas.
1960 to 1970 – Wave of Portuguese emigration
Wave of Portuguese emigration, motivated by the crisis in the agricultural sector, the inability of the economic sectors to absorb the rural population that abandoned the fields, political repression by the dictatorship and the escape from the colonial war. Coming of migrants or refugees from former African colonies.
1974, April 25th | Revolução dos Cravos
Carnation Revolution initiated by African leaders who wanted the independence of countries still under colonial rule. The very message/music at the beginning of the revolution in Portugal takes place in the area of the country with the greatest revolutionary spirit and the fight against labor or slave exploitation in the region with a strong African presence, which is the Sado Valley, and more specifically the city of Grandola, who is a brunette in the song due to her strong African ancestral presence. Peak in the next 10 years of African migrations in large numbers to Portugal.
1975 | Refugees from colonial wars, economic migrations
2001 | Cimeira de Sevilha (2001)
2004 | Cimeira de Haia e Criação da Agência Europeia de Gestão da Cooperação Operacional nas Fronteiras Externas (FRONTEX)
2007 | Cimeira Europa-África de Lisboa
3 de Outubro 2013 | Tragédia de Lampedusa
5 de Fevereiro 2015 | Jovens do Bairro da Cova da Moura (Amadora, AML) são sequestrados e torturados no interior da esaqudra de Alfragide (AML)
11 de Julho 2017 | Dezoito agentes da Esqaudra de Alfragide são acusados de crimes de racismo, tortura, injúria e falsificação de documentos.
Refugees from civil wars, socio-economic migrations, migrations from other diasporas on the American continent (north, center and south)