3000 B.C. – C. 1800 B.C. | CHALCOLITHIC
Network of beaker villages: small settlement units, with family roots. Need to visualize the space from a great distance (control) and some type of fortification.
2000 B.C. UNTIL C. 800 B.C. | BRONZE AGE
Centralization of ancient settlements: emergence of centers of political-economic power, in height, dominant over the landscape and over other settlement nuclei. Indigenous elites who will be the interlocutors with the Phoenicians African people from North Africa (probably arrived in the 9th century BC, judging by the dates in Almaraz).
1070 B.C. | TALINKA IS ELEVED
Bratrikus entered the south of the Iberian peninsula and built his capital in Talikha, close to present-day Seville.
878 B.C. | Phoenicians
750 B.C. At 138 B.C. | OLISIPO
The settlement, later known as Olisipo (-ipo means «place on a height», in the Turdula language of the south of the peninsula), appears on the Castelo hill and next to the riverfront.
700 to 646 B.C. | PRESENCE OF PHARAOH TAHARKA IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
Presence in the Iberian Peninsula of the general Kemetian (ancient Egypt) Taharka (tarraca in Latin) later becomes pharaoh by resignation of his uncle. Last Nubian king who ruled Egypt. Taharqa, was the son of Piye and took the throne in 690 BC, after the death of his uncle Shabaka. He distinguished himself as a warrior and military leader even before he became pharaoh. Current presence of the protective Egyptian eye on the fishing boats of Costa da Caparica, and of the scarab-shaped amulets found in archaeological excavations in the Sado valley and elsewhere in Iberia.
218 B.C. UNTIL 201 B.C. | PUNISH WARS
II Punic Wars. Punic Wars – War of Rome against the African peoples of North Africa – Carthaginians. Presence in Iberia of Hannibal, the African who asked the local people for help to fight against Rome with his armored elephants.
409 | BARBARIAN INVASION
Invasion of the Roman Empire by the so-called barbarians. Vandals, Alans and Suebi head to the Iberian Peninsula.
468 | VISIGODS
The last Roman governor of the city of Olisipo, Lusidius, transfers power to the Swabian king. The city will have passed to the government of the Visigoths, shortly afterwards.
476 | END OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
End of the Western Roman Empire.
711 | BEGINNING OF THE MUSLIM PRESENCE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA.
More Africanized dynasties were those of the Almoravids (1086) and Almohads (1145), in the middle between the two, as well as before and after them, there were independent and fractioned kingdoms, the «taifas», until the last days of al-Muslim kingdoms -Andalus in 1492;
Both during and outside the «more Africanized» governments, the Arabs (mainly Yemenis, Egyptians, Syrians) were in the majority, from a numerical point of view, compared to the Amazigh (Berbers) themselves; but there is already a presence of Berbers in the Peninsula (namely in the west) even before there was al-Andalus (before 711);
This was not an invasion (or an occupation), nor exactly an invitation, but a relatively non-belligerent conquest, sometimes favored by the elites, who in some cases were left with a certain amount of local power. That’s why it was quick, taking into account that the Visigoths were in a major crisis (economic, cultural, etc.) and the Muslims were in the dawn of the apogee of their civilization (soon they took with them knowledge, new institutions, greater possibilities of wealth, etc. ); moreover, the very Islamic institution of the dhimmah (pact of protection and coexistence), allowed peaceful coexistence between Jews, Christians and Muslims, facilitated the spread of Islamic power, migration continued over decades.
714 | MUSLIM CONQUEST OF OLISIPONA
Muslim conquest of Olisipona. The city gains a new name, Al – Ushbuna.